Work and Philosophy, pt. 2: Marx (iii)

Work and Philosophy, pt. 2:  Marx (conclusion)

When I was in college, my roommate was a Libertarian activist.  The biggest jerk on campus was an avowed Communist.   Once they got into a public debate that boiled down to this exchange:  “Communism is the only fair system.”  “But Robert, it doesn’t work!”  “But it’s fair!”  And that’s really all the Marxists have:  it doesn’t work, we know it doesn’t work, but it’s fair.  Why doesn’t it work?  And are those our only two choices:  unfair, exploitive efficiency or a striving for fairness that is ineffective at best, and utterly destructive at worst?  Do we have to choose between the Gilded Age and Great Depression, versus famines and cultural revolutions?

As to the second question, those do not appear to be our only two choices.  In the 1930’s we found a way to integrate elements of fairness into the overall structure of capitalist democracy, and have for eighty years avoided both the Communist revolution and the Fascist coup that so many confidently predicted in the 1930’s.  But to more fully understand this, we should look at the first question:  why doesn’t Marxism work?

I would say that the problem with Marxism can be traced to the different implications Marx and I draw from Darwinism.  Marx was an atheist materialist; in the early nineteenth century this was a difficult position to maintain.  If there is no God, then where did all the different animals and plants come from?  While biology and geology were beginning to undermine the literal account of Genesis, there was no really persuasive alternative account of the origins of life.  Darwin, of course, changed that equation.  With Darwin (and a few tweaks from his successors), the materialists had the more consistent and inclusive theory.  Given Marx’s conviction that religion is nothing more than a fraud made up by the oppressor class to keep the workers working, it was almost inevitable that he would embrace Darwinism early and enthusiastically.

But while Marx appreciated Darwinism’s scientific approach and materialist foundation, he doesn’t seem to have let it affect his epistemology much at all.  His view of human knowledge, and human nature, owes more to Hegel than to Darwin.  Hegel taught that human spirit (or mind) evolves historically over time, unfolding according to logical principles.  Marx demystified Hegel’s historical dialectic by understanding it as driven by material, economic principles instead of intellectual or spiritual ones.  As the material conditions of the human being change, the intellectual structures through which the individual thinks are changed, since these intellectual structures are born from this economic substructure.  The feudal European mind was the product of the feudal world, which was in turn the product of the technology and economic system of feudalism.  The individual never did, and never does simply encounter the world; rather, the individual filters and interprets experience through the mental structures of his or her age.  In perceiving the world, the individual creates the world at the same time, organizing sense perceptions using the categories and values given by the age.  Change the social environment, the economic substructure of the individual’s reality, and you change the individual’s very spirit itself.

As a theist and an empiricist, I take very different lessons from Darwin.  First, like millions of Christians, I accept Darwin’s basic scientific explanation.  This is said to be apostasy, but a simple historical lesson will show otherwise.  A thousand years ago, the idea of a scientific explanation for rainbows was considered blasphemous.  After all, the book of Genesis clearly states that God created the rainbow as a special sign of His promise to never again destroy the world by a flood.  Before Noah’s flood, there were no rainbows; now, God places one in the sky when it rains to remind us of His promise.  So when Arab scientists invented the new science of optics, and showed how humans could break light apart to create rainbows and how even natural rainbows could have a materialist explanation, many Christians (and I imagine, other believers as well) were offended.  But John Calvin simply replied, I don’t care   how God creates the rainbow; I accept that God, who created everything including the laws of physics, creates rainbows as the scientist says they are created.  We should never fear truth, Calvinists say, since all truth glorifies God; for God is truth.  So Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox Christians can all agree that life arose and is shaped by the principles Darwin describes; how God creates life is one thing, that God creates life is quite a different claim.  What to Marx was a refutation of religion is, to the theistic Darwinian, only a refutation of narrow-minded folly and superstition.

In fact, though, Darwinian theory does reinforce one Biblical teaching:  from dust were we made.  Darwinism says that we humans are the products of the same substance and forces that govern the rest of the universe.  Even our minds, our brains, are shaped by the forces of evolution.  We are the children of four-million year old bipedal apes wandering the plains of Africa.  We have senses that are the products of even more ancient ancestry; our eyes, ears, our other senses and the brain that organizes and interprets this sense data all evolved over time from simpler forms.  Creatures whose eyes saw reality more clearly survived and reproduced; creatures whose senses were less effective were destroyed by the facts they did not perceive.  Knowledge starts with the senses.  Do our senses have limits, make mistakes, and only perceive some fraction of the reality around us?  Undoubtedly, and in that sense the transcendental idealists like Kant and Hegel are right.  We don’t perceive perfectly and we do construct our world in perceiving it.  But how we construct it is itself a product of that same world.  Our senses, our brains, our hormonal responses, everything that gives rise to our minds, our spirits, our selves, our personalities is part of the world; and if our minds were truly cut off from the real world it would have destroyed us long ago.  And these senses and these minds were created slowly, over millions of years.  They are continuing to evolve; but they do not change overnight.

This, I think, explains why Marxism fails.  To the Marxist, knowledge is the result of the encounter with the world as perceived by the intellectual categories which are themselves the products of the economic substructure.  Change the economic reality in which the person lives, and you literally change his or her mind.  The acquisitiveness upon which capitalism is based is itself the creation of capitalism; put the individual in an environment where no one owns property and no one needs to since the community will provide whatever one needs, and people will change from the greedy, lazy and selfish creatures we are now into spontaneously creative, industrious and generous beings of the future.

A more pragmatic, empirical and thoroughly Darwinian view of human nature would say that we are what millions of years have made us.  Sure, we can change our behavior according to new realities.  Put us in a civilized environment, and we will mostly stop killing each other over water holes or fruit trees.  But even the most “modern” person has a brain and body that evolved on the plains of Africa two million years ago.  That essential nature will not go away just because our economic realities change; it will only manifest itself in different ways.  Nature has shaped us to want to enjoy the fruits of our own work, and to resent it when someone takes from us, just as the chimp resents being robbed of his banana by a larger rival and will scheme to try to hide what he cannot hold by force alone.  At the same time, just as chimpanzees do cooperate for the good of the group, so too we humans are able to put aside some of our self-assertion for a higher goal.  Humans seem to function best when they have at least some control over their work and can enjoy and control at least some of the products of their labors.  Just like many other social mammals, humans will put up with a lot if they perceive it as being fair, and if they perceive that it will lead to a desired goal.  And just like other social mammals, we resent having everything we produce taken from us to be distributed by the Alpha Male or the State or Collective or any other entity.  And just like other animals, if our needs are met we will pursue pleasure, or sleep, or possibly do a host of other things that are unlikely to serve the community.  Necessity is the mother of industry as well as invention.

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