Posts Tagged ‘Donald Trump’

9/11/22: How bin Laden is Winning

September 12, 2022

9/11/2022:  How bin Laden is Winning

Rommel, you magnificent bastard, I READ YOUR BOOK!

—–Patton, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner (1970; 20th Century Fox) film

            In sports, the great strategic coup is when one side can break the code the other side uses, read their signals, or best of all, steal their playbook.  When you have your opponent’s playbook, you know what they’re going to do almost as soon as they do; you can see their lineup and know what they’re going to try, and work to counter it immediately.  You know how they’ll try to defend against you, and avoid their traps.  It almost takes the need for great athletes and coaching out of the game, which is why it was such a huge scandal when a prominent NFL coach was alleged to have stolen his opponent’s signals.  It was seen as such a big advantage that it ruined the game.  In much the same way, the Watergate scandal began as an attempt by the Republican party to steal the political playbook from its Democratic rivals, to know their strategic intentions, to wiretap their communications, and thus to know everything they were planning to do so as to counter it immediately.  Again, since the point of a political campaign is supposedly to have a contest between ideologies, policies and visions of the future, this was seen as sleazy because it gave one side too much advantage.

            The same principle applies in war, of course.  In that great movie Patton, Gen. Patton wins a decisive victory over the German army because he read Rommel’s book on military tactics and knew what to expect from the attackers.  At the battle of Midway, the Americans turned the tide of the war because they had broken the Japanese code and knew their entire battle plan.  But in war, this is not seen as “unsporting,” as if the victory was somehow sullied; the goal is to win, to survive, and stealing the opponent’s playbook is simply good intelligence.  It may not guarantee victory, but it comes pretty close.

            In 2004, the United States stole al Qaeda’s playbook.  Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Islamic Nation Will Pass, is a pseudonymously published text, written in Arabic and said to have been read by most of al Qaeda’s top leaders.[1]  It is a strategic plan for how a militarily weaker force can use terrorism and political maneuvering to seize power.  The first step is to use low-level terrorist attacks to force the governing power to spread its forces out to provide security.  Of course, this ultimately can’t work.  Sure, you can guard all the government buildings, military bases and so-called “legitimate targets,” but then the terrorists switch to places of worship, shopping malls and markets, schools and anywhere that’s vulnerable.  These smaller, near-constant attacks are the real point, but the terrorists also need to appear powerful and visible in order to recruit; so they should stage the occasional major, flashy attack that grabs international attention.  This in turn gains more foot soldiers, suicide bombers and saboteurs to further undermine the local government.  The 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon were, essentially, publicity stunts.  The ongoing civil wars, assassinations, bombings and looting and chaos in Pakistan, Libya, Nigeria and other countries with large Muslim populations are the primary strategic work.  When a local government can no longer provide even basic security or services due to the relentless attacks of terrorists within its borders, it will collapse into chaos, or “savagery,” with small groups banding together along ethnic or tribal lines to fend for themselves.  At that point, the writer using the name “Abu Bakr Naji” says, the jihadist group that cause the trouble in the first place can step in to fill the power vacuum, as the most powerful local force, and begin providing services (as the “management” part of the equation) to win the people over.  Eventually, the author claims, people will be so grateful for some sort of stability that they’ll accept, and eventually even love the same terrorist group that previously made their lives so hellish. 

            And where does the United States fit into all of this?  So far as I can see, it doesn’t, and that’s the point.  The jihadists aim to establish a caliphate, and the major powers are in the way.  They can’t really be integrated into a caliphate unless either they all convert to Islam or accept second-class status as dhimmi paying tribute to their Muslim overlords, neither of which is likely in the foreseeable future.  But the Soviet failure in Afghanistan convinced the jihadists that all these richer, more powerful nations could be bankrupted, which would in turn lead different regions and groups to turn on each other in a struggle for resources.  At that point, they would be unable to continue their international cultural hegemony.  Right now, people from Riyadh to Rome, Beijing to Bagdad  and points in between, no matter what their professed religion, preferred economic system or political structure, want Levis and hamburgers and Hollywood movies and countless other trappings of Western culture.  They want Western styles and standards, and even Western freedoms.  They rightfully reject our colonial, imperial history, but often in the name of our own values of equality and justice.  And even if they want the fruits of Western culture without Western values and principles, they find that is wanting the tree without the root; the goodies are byproducts of millions of free individuals working together in creative and innovative ways that other cultural systems don’t.  So if you’re a jihadist, or other authoritarian, you need to stop the flow of Western culture itself into your realm.  Osama bin Laden saw this as clearly as did Khomeini, but they had different strategies.  The Iranian strategy has been more traditional:  seize power in a country, gain regional political and military influence, and control your borders, educational system, and press, to keep out foreign influences.  Bin Laden’s plan was more aggressive:  lure the United States and Europe into expensive, unending wars, while undermining their international allies in more moderate Muslim nations like Indonesia, until the Western powers first lose the ability to support their allies, then become consumed by internal dissention and conflict, and finally lose the ability to export their poisonous ideas like feminism and democracy. 

            So, we have the terrorists’ playbook.  We know what they want to do, and what they want us to do, so we can choose to target efforts to frustrate them while avoiding the missteps they count on us making.  They want us to bankrupt ourselves, abandon our allies, internationally isolate ourselves, adopt a siege mentality where we waste resources trying to turn every important infrastructure or social gathering point into a fortress while growing more and more anxious as this fails, turn on our own fellow citizens over sectarian, ethnic and regional differences in a misdirected effort to gain a sense of physical and psychological security, until we finally collapse as a “United” States of America.  All we have to do to win the war the jihadists started on September 11, 2001 is to not do those things, and as far as possible do the opposite:  avoid national bankruptcy, build up our international alliances, preserve overall internal security and a safer society rather than trying to fortify every school, church, grocery store etc. while leaving all points in between as free-fire zones, and above all, we should build stronger ties of mutual trust and support among different groups within our society.  That is how you win the War on Terror.

            The Republican Party has not done those things.  In fact, it has done the opposite.  Slowly at first but with exponentially increasing speed, the Republican Party has followed the script al Qaeda wrote for us.  Our national debt has gone up dramatically whenever Republicans have seized control of our federal finances, while state governments under Republican control have generally relied on federal funds to keep them afloat far more than have comparable Democratic-run states.[2]  Republicans consistently push policies that help the rich while taking money away from the poor and middle classes, now actually proposing to raise taxes on half of all Americans just to preserve the tax cuts for billionaires and corporations they passed in 2017.[3]  They spent four years shredding national alliances that their predecessors of all political stripes spent decades or even centuries nurturing, while praising foreign dictators for being “strong leaders” and “smarter than us.”  They defund public schools and vilify teachers as a class as “groomers” for some alleged international Satanic pedophile conspiracy, while sending armed guards into schools allegedly to keep the children safe but who spend more of their time physically subduing the students themselves than any actual protecting.  They work tirelessly to bring guns into more homes, churches, schools, stores, in some places even bars, despite evidence that this will only increase the violence and loss of life among citizens and despite poll numbers showing most Americans want more sensible gun control, not less.  And through a continuous torrent of hateful and fearful rhetoric, cruel and pointless laws, certifiably unqualified judges making rulings that threaten national security, domestic tranquility and shred all trust and respect for the once-independent but now blatantly partisan judiciary, they work tirelessly to divide Americans and pit them against each other, feeding their base with the absurd belief that the White Evangelicals who are numerically a minority but who dominate all aspects of our society are somehow the most persecuted people on the planet, who must arm up and lash out to “defend” themselves from Jewish space lasers and NASA pedophile colonies on Mars.  If the GOP had studied Abu Bakr-Naji and said, “Here’s what the jihadists say we’re supposed to do,” they could not have done a better job of following bin Laden’s script. 

            Are Republicans actively seeking to conspire with al Qaeda to fulfill bin Laden’s plans?  Not really; but they might as well be.  The seemingly paradoxical and nationally destructive actions of the GOP in this century make sense when we remember that “terrorism” isn’t an ideology; it’s a strategy.  The Republican response to jihadist terrorism has often amounted to “fighting fire with fire.”  In response to the reasonable fear Americans felt about bloodthirsty religious fanatics burning with hatred towards the U.S. government and democracy in general, Republicans have increasingly courted support from bloodthirsty religious fanatics burning with hatred towards the U.S. government and democracy in general, except that they fight for White Supremacy and the Confederacy instead of Islam and the Caliphate.  And these domestic terrorists, naturally, adopt many of the same arguments, tactics and goals of other successful terrorist groups:  sowing fear and division, encouraging hundreds of low-level terrorist attacks and violent crimes with very occasional high-profile operations to raise their visibility and help recruit followers, trying to stretch the resources of the lawful authorities while wearing down the will to resist among the people.  The people who advocated for “religious” private schools as a way to preserve segregation, and then reorganized themselves and rebranded as the “Moral Majority,” who came out days after the 9/11 attacks while the World Trade Center was still smoldering to blame the Jews and feminists and liberals and thus sought to sow division and hatred among neighbors at a time of maximum national unity, have continued that work of divisiveness and deceit to this day. 

            Again, I ask rhetorically, are they all or even most trying consciously to destroy the USA?  Not really.  When Jerry Falwell Sr. and the other future founders of the Moral Majority, Christian Coalition etc. first set out to defend the “religious” private schools, (the “segregation academies” that were set up to circumvent the Brown v. Board of Education decision) they didn’t think of themselves as fighting to overturn the Constitution or relitigate the Civil War; Falwell described himself as a “superpatriot” even before he was “born again” for Christ.  At the time, he stated he saw desegregationists like MLK as part of the godless Communist threat against the nation, while the segregation academies were founded by Evangelical churches and thus were religious schools, so defending them was defending religious liberty.[4]  But this very “super” patriotism blinded him to the Gospel truth, which King represented, that all people are God’s children and should be treated with equality and dignity, regardless of skin color or even nationality.  Falwell’s religious politics confused the Kingdom of God, the United States and the status quo, which tends to this day to idolize (literally) the social status quo of Falwell’s youth in the 1950s.  This is a politically powerful synthesis which elevated many pastors, politicians and others to wealth and influence, and birthed many socially prominent organizations; but theologically, it is idolatry, weakening the spiritual power of the “Religious” Right.[5]  And not only is its source of power flawed, but its moral compass is misaligned; instead of pointing towards the Pole Star which for Christians is Christ who saved the world through love, humility, folly and weakness, it points towards a Gospel that both needs the United States as a worldly base, and privileges the United States because it serves the Evangelical cause.

            In its early embrace of the segregation academy movement, the nascent Religious Right allied with White Supremacists and other domestic terrorist movements.  Indeed, this alliance goes back even further to the founder of Christian Reconstructionism, Rousas Rushdooney, whose conversion to Evangelicalism led him to neo-Confederate circles and thus to become a slavery defender and Holocaust denier.  The founders of the Religious Right were racists in some cases, and in other cases racist-adjacent or racist-allies.  And that means they were, as they once said of a political opponent, palling around with terrorists.  They didn’t necessarily endorse the methods of the KKK or American Nazis, but they did adopt many of their political policies (attacking public schools, women’s equality, workers’ rights, racial justice and so on) and much of their rhetoric (fear of foreigners and their contamination, and obeisance to American military imperialism).  And that political agenda, suited to the needs of a politically weak, morally corrupt minority, was pretty much identical with al Qaeda’s goals decades later:  divide America, weaken it, plunge it into chaos, play upon the fears of White Protestant Evangelical Conservatives, start a civil war or something close to it, and then take over by imposing a new power structure based on racial and ideological purity.

            The reason it seems as if the Republican Party has spent the last 20 or so years playing the part written for it by Osama bin Laden is that al Qaeda and the Know-Nothings, KKK, American Nazis and White Supremacist terrorist groups have similar agendas, and thus adopt similar tactics.  These domestic terrorist groups have in turn corrupted or co-opted more “mainstream” conservative groups and gradually radicalized them, until we reached the point where today it is not unusual to hear terrorists’ words uttered by elected government officials and a U.S. Congressman who fled the terrorist mob on January 6th 2021 personally gave a flag that had flown over the Capitol to a convicted insurrectionist—and the world barely batted an eye.[6]  We may have won the war against the jihadists, but one political party surrendered in the War on Terror, switched sides, and now fights to not only keep terrorism alive to threatened American lives, but seeks to inject its agenda into the American political mainstream. 


[1]Abu Bakr Naji Management of Savagery: The Most Critical Stage Through Which the Islamic Nation Will Pass, translated by William McCants (2006:  The John M. Olin Institute for Strategic Studies at Harvard University) https://www.academia.edu/24287794/Abu_bakr_naji_the_management_of_savagery_the_most_critical_stage_through_which_the_umma_will_pass

[2] Allan Sloan and Cezary Podkul, “Trump’s Most Enduring Legacy Could Be the Historic Rise in the National Debt;” Washington Post January 14, 2021 (https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/01/14/trump-legacy-national-debt-increasee/) For an example of Republican economics on the state level, see Jeremy Hobson, Dean Russell and Samantha Raphelson, “As Trump Proposes Tax Cuts, Kansas Deals with Aftermath of Experiement;” NPR October 25, 2017 (https://www.npr.org/2017/10/25/560040131/as-trump-proposes-tax-cuts-kansas-deals-with-aftermath-of-experiment) For a discussion showing how Republicans tend to rely on Federal subsides of their states more than the Democrats whom they call “moochers,” see John S. Kiernan, managing editor, “Most and Least Federally Dependant States,” Wallethub March 15, 2022 (https://wallethub.com/edu/states-most-least-dependent-on-the-federal-government/2700)

[3] Rep. Don Beyer, chair, “Senator Rick Scott’s Plan to Raise Taxes on Working Families and Slash Essential Programs Would Cost Jobs and Reduce Economic Growth; Joint Economic Committee Democrats April 13, 2022 (https://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/democrats/2022/4/senator-rick-scott-s-plan-to-raise-taxes-on-working-families-and-slash-essential-programs-would-cost-job-sand-reduce-economic-growth)

[4] Randall Balmer, “The Real Origins of the Religious Right, “ Politico  May 2014 (https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2014/05/religious-right-real-origins-107133)

[5] James B. Comey, “Reinhold Niebuhr and Jerry Falwell:  the Christian in Politics;” 1982:  College of William & Mary (https://scholarworks.wm.edu/honorstheses/1116/)

[6] Aaron Pellish and Marshall Cohen, “Republican Congressman Presents Convicted January 6th Rioter with Flag Flown Over U.S. Capitol After Her Release from Prison;” CNN September 11, 2022 (https://www.cnn.com/2022/09/10/politics/louie-gohmert-january-6-simone-gold/index.html).  So a U.S. Congressman awards a national honor to a perpetrator of one of the greatest terrorist attacks against this country on the anniversary of another, and the circle is complete.

Theses Attributable to Aristotle: Fourth Thesis–The Rule of Law

October 28, 2021

Fourth Thesis:  Rule of Law Totally Rules

We begin by asking whether it is more expedient to be ruled by the best man or by the best laws.

—–Aristotle, The Politics, Book III, chapter XV, 1286A7

         It has long been debated whether a “benign despotism” is a better form of government than any other.  In this regard, even Plato’s philosopher-king seems to be an example:  take the best, wisest person of all of us, and empower that person to make decisions; by definition the best person will be the one who makes the best decisions, so this wisest and most benevolent despot will make better judgments than any group of lesser souls ever could.  J.S. Mill takes pains to argue against the notion of benign despotism, precisely because it seems so logical and is so often accepted, at least tacitly.  People may say democracy is better because no one person has the wisdom and benevolence to wield unlimited power; but often they go on to say or wish that if such a one did arise, that person should be given sole rule and the power to back up their decrees. [1]  In Christian political thought into the Enlightenment, monarchy was often assumed as both the most natural form of human government, and as reflecting God’s own reign; Jesus is the King of Kings, raised from lowliness and from death to rule, and your local king was Christ’s viceroy.  Whether the secular humanist or theocratic model is preferred, the agreement is that the ideal government would be one where a supremely good person had supreme power as well, and was free to make decisions and set policies for society unchecked either by lesser persons or by the dead letter of the law.  Aristotle, too, discusses such arguments.  He uses the analogy of a doctor; wouldn’t it be better to have a doctor who was well-trained and perceptive who could prescribe treatment based on the unique problem at hand, rather than one who read the treatment from a book? 

         But while there are arguments in favor of the benign despot, Aristotle rejects the notion.  Ultimately, he says, the best society will be one that is run according to written laws and unwritten customs, with individual case-by-case human judgment kept to a minimum.  Returning to the analogy of the doctor, he says, suppose you feared your doctor might have been bribed by your enemies; in that case, wouldn’t you prefer that he treat you according to previously-established rules and procedures?[2]  This is the situation in the state.  The supposedly “benign despot” still has appetites and desires that may run counter to yours, or even to the good of the nation as a whole.  Furthermore, every group has its own interests:  the poor want power given to the many since they outnumber the rich, while the rich want power restricted; the military, the agriculturalists, even the tradesmen all have their own agendas.  A stable government is one that is accepted as just and beneficial by all, or at least by the overwhelming majority.  If the state is run by a king who is furthermore unchecked by laws and customs, each person will fear that the decisions of that king are bought by their competitors.  The law, Aristotle says, is “intellect without appetition.”[3]  It is both general and, usually, long-established, and the same for everyone; it is what has been.  Everyone knows “the rules of the game,” as we say today, and can accept that there’s “nothing personal” when things don’t work out in their favor.  Aristotle even goes so far as to say, “he who asks law to rule is asking god and intelligence and no others to rule; while he who asks for the rule of a human being is importing a wild beast too; for desire is like a wild beast, and anger perverts rules and the very best of men.”  So even though he says elsewhere that if it were possible to have a single morally superlative ruler, that would be like having a god who should be obeyed unquestioned, in fact he claims that in a realistic society with realistic people we should be governed by good laws.  It is these laws which will in turn educate the citizens and leaders, turning them into the kinds of people who can know how best to apply these general principles to actual cases.

         While Aristotle discusses this primarily in relation to monarchy, his comments about rule of law apply to all governments whether they be rule by the one, the few or the many.  A “correct” government is one that rules in the interest of the state as a whole; a “deviant” one rules in the interests of the rulers.[4]  And it is rule of law that protects against arbitrariness and self-serving government.  In fact, the laws (written and customary) reflect the constitution.  Aristotle’s definition of the “constitution” of the state is the organization of the citizen-body:  who has authority, who holds what offices and so on.  The laws reflect this organization, laying down general principles whereby this authority is exercised.[5]  So rule according to the laws precisely is rule that seeks to preserve the state, and thus the only justified government at all. 

         In Aristotle’s time, it was an established practice that someone leaving office would present an account of his tenure; if he was found to have failed or acted corruptly, he could be punished.  In our day, President Trump sought to overthrow those “unwritten” laws, norms and customs of government, as well as many of the written laws, in an attempt to subvert the established principles of our government on January 6th, 2021.  In response, he was impeached by the House, but was not sanctioned by the Senate.  This is despite the words of Mitch McConnell, then leader of the Senate, who said, “”Former President Trump’s actions (preceding) the riot were a disgraceful – disgraceful – dereliction of duty,” and, “There is no question that President Trump is practically and morally responsible for provoking the events of that day.”[6]  In an Athenian “scrutiny,” this would have been all the cause needed to punish.  In fact, though, the entire administration had been one of ignoring both written and unwritten rules, particularly when the financial profit of some government official was at stake or the political and personal feud of some person was being pursued.  And in fact, there are still many cases when politicians of both parties use government information to profit in the stock market, use their power to protect their personal investments, condemn in their opponents what they praise in their allies and otherwise put the interests of themselves and their faction over the welfare of the state as a whole.  Whereas Aristotle considered the unwritten norms and customs of the state to often be even more crucial in decision-making than were the written laws, today the unwritten norms are shredded if it suits the power of demagogues.  And too often, those who think themselves championed by some demagogue not only tolerate violations of law and custom:  they demand it.  Now, it is largely the “conservatives” who seem least interested in “conserving” our traditions of government; recent polls have indicated more than half of Republican voters are ready to abandon our Constitution’s democracy in favor of some vision of “America” that better suits them.  When I was in college, I heard that same sort of rhetoric from self-professed “liberals,” who referred to the government’s written laws (whether it was student government or national) as a “toolbox” from which the leaders could select whichever “laws” would help them promote their agenda, while leaving the rest aside.  Always, whether it’s liberal or conservative, the impulse to abandon rule of law, norms, and rituals of government represents a faction and its leaders putting themselves ahead of the health of the nation.  There is no true “enlightened” or “benign” despot; anyone with governmental power and office is either a servant and executor of the laws of the nation, or its enemy.


[1] John Stuart Mill, Considerations on Representative Government, 1861

[2] Aristotle, Politics, Book III, chapter xvi, 1287a32

[3] 1287a23

[4] Politics Book III, chapter vii, 1279a22

[5] Book IV, chapter I, 1289a11

[6] MacKenzie Sadeghi “Fact Check:  Yes, McConnell Said Trump Was ‘Practically and Morally Responsible’ for Capitol Riot;” USA Today February 16, 2021 (https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/factcheck/2021/02/16/fact-check-mcconnell-said-trump-was-responsible-for-capitol-riot/6767311002/)

Reflections on 9/11:  Twenty Years Later

September 12, 2021

Reflections on 9/11:  Twenty Years Later

            “I really believe that the pagans, and the abortionists, and the feminists, and the gays and the lesbians who are actively trying to make that an alternative lifestyle, the ACLU, People for the American Way, all of them who have tried to secularize America, I point the finger in their face and say, ‘You helped this happen.’ “

—–Jerry Falwell Sr. September 13, 2001

            I recently heard an interview with Hillary Clinton, who was a Senator from New York in 2001 when terrorists destroyed the World Trade Center and attacked the Pentagon, killing over 3,000 Americans (at the time the number was estimated to be at least twice that).  She recalled the horror of that day, and the overwhelming emotion of personally visiting Ground Zero days later.  She also recalled the way Americans of all political, religious, ethnic and social backgrounds rallied around the nation, and each other, to support their nation and to offer support to one another.  I recall that time of dismay but not despair, and how everyone from rock stars to politicians to Muslim imams to Catholic priests to atheists to countless millions of average Americans did whatever they could think to do, whether it was holding a telethon to raise money to help the families of the lost, to leading interfaith prayer services, to writing to encourage one another to take heart and stand together against bloodlust and chaos, to joining the military to defend the nation. 

            But one group did not join in this great impulse of unity:  Jerry Falwell, Pat Robertson, and countless other Evangelicals and culture warriors.  They sought to divide.  They sought to blame their fellow Americans.  They sought to turn the worst attack on American soil since Pearl Harbor into a political advantage for the Religious Right.  As al Qaeda was seeking to turn Americans against one another, the leaders of American Evangelicalism were helping them, unwittingly I believe, by succumbing to fear and loathing of their neighbors and to their own sense of moral superiority.  God was punishing the nation; but surely God wasn’t displeased with them, so it must be their political foes who are to blame.  Simply rid the nation of liberals and feminists and pagans and anyone who didn’t share the agenda of White Evangelical Christians, and we could all sleep peacefully; until then, we’d have to wait in dread, moment by moment, for a wrathful God to smite us again.  Even though the Bible never condemns abortion, even though Jesus flouted the subservient role his culture assigned women by defending Mary as she sat with the men listening to his words instead of feeding and serving them, even though women like Priscilla were early leaders of the Church in apostolic times, Jerry Falwell Sr. had no hesitancy in blaming feminists and pro-choice Christians, among others, for the 9/11 attacks, as he sought to turn others against his political opponents.  President Bush denounced his statements, even some other Evangelical leaders chided him, and he apologized; but he had spoken from his heart, said the quiet part out loud, and in the moment when almost every other American was looking for ways to support their neighbors he revealed that he and the other Culture Warriors were more interested in scapegoating. 

            In 2001 the atheist and iconoclast Christopher Hitchens denounced the al Qaeda terrorists as the last gasp of a dying ideology.  The forces of freedom and civilization were too strong; while terrorists would be able to unleash events, they would never turn the tide.  The barbarians, as he put it, would fail and fall, though they might do a lot of harm to their own people and to others along the way.  In 2021, by contrast, the conservative Culture Warriors, American citizens, are the ones attacking America, and the nation faces a far greater danger than it did in 2001.  When COVID-19 first appeared, White supremacists started urging each other to spread the disease at every opportunity.  Today they continue to fight efforts at moderate, common-sense public health measures like wearing masks around unvaccinated children.  The difference is that when the Religious Right, (mostly White) Evangelicals tried to turn 9/11 into another battle in their Culture War, they were shut down by everyone from President Bush to the hoi polloi.  In 2021, President* Trump’s White House actively encouraged people to resist efforts to fight the pandemic.  Almost immediately after describing the fight against COVID-19 as a war and himself as a wartime president, Trump showed that he was willing to fight—against doctors, against scientists, against political and religious leaders trying to organize a resistance; but he was fighting to help the virus he himself had labeled “the enemy” in this war.  If he was a wartime leader, he was Benedict Donald.

            President Bush rallied the nation to join together and fight against a common threat, and his popularity soared; it wasn’t surprising when he won reelection.  Trump denigrated his own experts, divided Americans, and actively worked to sabotage efforts by others to fight against the common threat; and for this reason it was not too surprising that he lost.  Bush fought against terrorists; Trump and the Republican party describe the January 6th terrorists who stormed our nation’s Capitol as “political prisoners,” refuse to form a bipartisan commission like the 9/11 Commission that investigated security failures and other problems revealed by the terrorist attack.  It shouldn’t be shocking that they are doing this.  Falwell and Robinson revealed twenty years ago that this is who they are.  This is what the right-wing Culture Warriors do.  Democracy means compromise and tolerance of The Other, your neighbor; if you think that having a gay neighbor or a Wiccan or Muslim neighbor, or a woman who votes and has her own job and speaks her mind as a neighbor, means that an angry but nearsighted God will smite you in His attempts to punish them, then the last thing you want is tolerance, compromise, or democracy.  These things are deadly threats to the right-wing culture warrior.  They are even bigger threats to the people who make millions of dollars by merchandising hate and fear.  Whether its conservative “news” organization selling advertising time, or panhandlers and charlatans on television and in megachurches, or sellers of gold and guns and MREs and other goods supposed to help survive the coming apocalypse (which inexplicably the buyers were both preparing to survive and expecting to escape via The Rapture), or a politician relying on anger and fear to turn out the base in the next election, there is a huge Culture War Industrial Complex driving the nation towards chaos for the many, profits for the few.

            If we want to fight al Qaeda and its allies, if we want to honor our fallen, the only meaningful way to do so is to reject the Culture Wars by rejecting, shunning, voting against the Culture Warriors until the entire money-grubbing, vote-whoring enterprise crashes.  We’ve tried to fight the Culture Wars with reasonable arguments, democratic processes and simple refusal to engage.  That got us a right-wing government that consciously helped spread an epidemic among the American people, hoping to undermine the political fortunes of Democratic leaders who tried to require people to wear masks in much the same way they are required to wear shoes in restaurants to avoid spreading germs.  It got us a government and a political party working to sabotage effective methods to fight a deadly pandemic, while using insider information to generate profits for its leaders who invested in everything from hydroxychloroquine to body bags. Ignoring the Culture Warriors got us riots and insurrection, attacks on national and state governments, and police officers murdered by White supremacists so that BLM can be blamed.  Ignoring the Culture Warriors of the Religious Right has gotten us years of conservative media and religious leaders calling for a second Civil War.  We need to take them as seriously as we took the threat from al Qaeda, because they are more dangerous and more despicable.  That does not mean fighting with the same violence they have shown in their assaults on teachers, nurses, law enforcement, the press, peaceful protestors, kids working after school whose manager has told them to ask customers to wear a mask, and others.  But it does mean fighting in even greater numbers and greater determination, by marching, by phoning political leaders, by leaving churches that condone right-wing paranoid delusions and thuggery, and by voting against the GOP at every opportunity, voting straight Democrat until the Republican party either collapses and is replaced by a legitimate center-right party, or reforms itself by purging the QAnon cultists, the White supremacists, the dictator coddlers, and most emphatically by repudiating the corrupt, seditious and profoundly ignorant leader and his enablers who have turned today’s GOP into MAGA: Moscow’s American Guerilla Army.

For further reading:

Insurrection Fallout:  Politico September 11, 2021 (https://www.politico.com/news/insurrection-fallout)

Brian Naylor, “Senate Republicans Block a Plan for an Independent Commission on Jan. 6th Capitol Riot;” NPR May 28, 2021 (https://www.npr.org/2021/05/28/1000524897/senate-republicans-block-plan-for-independent-commission-on-jan-6-capitol-riot)

Jonathan Rauch and Benjamin Wittes, “Boycott the Republican Party;” The Atlantic March 2018 (https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/03/boycott-the-gop/550907/)

Dirk Vanderheart and Conrad Wilson, “Oregon Lawmaker who Opened Capitol to Far-Right Protestors Faces Charges;” NPR May 1, 2021 (https://www.npr.org/2021/05/01/992713857/oregon-lawmaker-who-opened-state-capitol-to-far-right-protesters-faces-charges)

Ailsa Chang, “Investigation Lays Out Plot to Kidnap Michigan’s Governor;” NPR July 28, 2021 (https://www.npr.org/2021/07/28/1021892785/investigation-lays-out-plot-to-kidnap-michigans-governor)

Richard Winton, Maura Dolan and Anita Chabria, “Far-right ‘Boogaloo Boys’ Linked to Killing of California Law Officers and Other Violence;” LA Times June 17, 2020 (https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-06-17/far-right-boogaloo-boys-linked-to-killing-of-california-lawmen-other-violence) At the RNC later that year, Mike Pence linked these killings to BLM rather than mention they were carried out by White Supremacists

Karma Allen, “Man Who Helped Ignite George Floyd Protests Identified as White Supremacist:  Police;” ABC News July 29, 2020 (https://abcnews.go.com/US/man-helped-ignite-george-floyd-riots-identified-white/story?id=72051536)

Jake Pearson, “Republican Billionaire’s Group Pushes Unproven COVID-19 Treatment Trump Promoted;” ProPublica March 26, 2020 (https://www.propublica.org/article/republican-billionaire-group-pushes-unproven-covid-19-treatment-trump-promoted)

 

“Police:  Richmond Riots Instigated by White Supremacists Disguised as Black Lives Matter;” WSLS 10 July 28, 2020 (https://www.wsls.com/news/virginia/2020/07/27/police-richmond-riots-instigated-by-white-supremacists-disguised-as-black-lives-matter/)

 

Margaret Carlson, “Kelly Loeffler and David Perdue, Profiting Off Pandemic Pain, Are the Ugly Faces of GOP Corruption;” Daily Beast Jan. 3, 2021 (https://www.thedailybeast.com/kelly-loeffler-and-david-perdue-profiting-off-pandemic-pain-are-the-ugly-faces-of-gop-corruption)

Matt Steib, “Trump’s Disregard for Blue States Is at the Heart of His Shoddy COVID Response;” Intelligencer July 31, 2020 (https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/07/trumps-war-on-blue-states-is-worse-than-previously-thought.html)

Minyvonne Burke, “In 9/11 Speech, Bush Pays Tribute to ‘America I Know,’ Calls Out Domestic Terrorism Threat;” NBC News September 11, 2021 (https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/9-11-speech-bush-pays-tribute-america-i-know-calls-n1278986)

“Biden, Obama and Clinton Mark 9/11 in New York with Display of Unity;” CBS News September 11, 2021 (https://www.cbsnews.com/news/biden-obama-clinton-911-new-york-display-of-unity/)

Laurie Goodstein, “Falwell:  Blame Abortionists, Feminists and Gays;” The Guardian September 19, 2001 (https://www.theguardian.com/world/2001/sep/19/september11.usa9)

 

How the Republican Party Became a Death Cult (pt. 4, conclusion)

August 31, 2021

            So, just as the Religious Right embraced nuclear conflagration as a good thing and thus rejected diplomatic efforts aimed at avoiding the destruction of the world, so too did 20th century apocalypticism support Republican contempt for climate science.  The Revelation of John describes a situation of famine and inflation of basic food prices, so warnings from Al Gore about future famines if global warming ran unchecked didn’t frighten them.  They welcomed the idea that some sort of food crisis would precipitate the U.N. takeover of world government and worldwide food rationing.  A few million or billion humans dead from starvation is a small price to pay for eternal salvation; and besides, “prophecies” from A Thief in the Night to Left Behind have assured Evangelicals that they won’t experience any of this suffering themselves.  They, the faithful ones, will be caught up to Heaven in an instant, while only those faithless, godless hordes and a few weaker Christians “left behind” to suffer oppression and thus fulfill the Biblical warnings that the faithful would be persecuted will have to endure any of this.  While the original apocalyptic writings were addressed to people already undergoing persecution, today’s milquetoast, middle-class prophecies are meant to reassure the comfortable that they can profit now from ravaging the world’s resources, and later miraculously disappear from history to watch the Tribulations unfold on Earth while they sit as the audience in Heaven, enraptured.

            Evangelicals plan to ride to victory with Death, War and Famine; could you really expect they’d turn down the fourth horseman, Pestilence?  The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the full enervation of the Republican Party by this Evangelical anti-abortion, pro-business apocalypticism.  When Donald J. Trump won the New Hampshire primary in 2016, many Evangelicals were dismayed; he was a rich, pampered, self-indulgent, self-promoting New Yorker, nearly everything they’d always claimed to despise.  But he was endorsed by Jerry Falwell Jr. and promised to appoint anti-choice judges; so just as they had overlooked Falwell Jr.’s sexual and financial excesses because of his successful father and his support of “traditional” values, so too they agreed to first ignore, and later even to glorify what they had once regarded as Trump’s sins and shortcomings in exchange for his furthering their political agenda.  Many of us looked at his career, his public statements, his legal history and the words of his confidants, and concluded that he was temperamentally and intellectually unsuited to high office—or low office, for that matter.  We predicted that he would use the office for his own financial gains and to settle personal grudges, and that he would make foolish decisions while ignoring the “experts” because of his own confidence in his genetic superiority.[1]  We predicted that his racist rhetoric and his racist actions in the past showed that he was incapable of governing a diverse society and unwilling to try.  And for these reasons, we believed he would eventually face a crisis that no amount of smug superiority or “power of positive thinking” could overcome, which would wreck his presidency and the nation.  As Jon Stewart said, even if you don’t like Hillary, the worst you might get with her is a bad president.  The nation has survived that before.  Trump was a whole other level of danger.  But to Evangelicals, the dangers of world war, economic collapse, famine, even pandemic were at worst nothing, and at best harbingers of the Kingdom of God; but abortion (something the Bible doesn’t even treat as a sin) is really terrible, while the promise of White Evangelical cultural dominance was intoxicating. So they laughed off the warnings from “socialists” and embraced a man they had once abhorred:  the money-grubbing, pussy-grabbing, bad-mouthing, threat-breathing braggart, Donald Trump. 

            And behold, all that the nasty socialist liberals warned against has come to pass.    He, his family and their associates used their offices for financial gain, whether it was charging the Secret Service to lodge in Trump Tower and various Trump golf courses to protect him and his family, to using a border crisis to force Qatar to “loan” Jared Kushner millions of dollars, to multiple Cabinet members and others using their official power to throw taxpayer money to businesses they were invested in or to kneecap competition.  Despite promising to assemble a team of experts to advise him, he dispensed with them as rapidly and frequently as he does wives and mistresses, driving many into early retirement so that not only did he not have the benefit of their experience, but future governments wouldn’t either.  His racist rhetoric has repeatedly inspired mass murderers and domestic terrorists, while he affirmed that those who walk shoulder-to-shoulder with Nazis were “very fine people.”  He spent years manufacturing crises and scandals, using one to distract from the other until, inevitably, a crisis came along that he couldn’t just wish away because he wasn’t the sole cause of it in the first place.  As his critics had predicted, he not only failed to deal with it effectively, he didn’t even try.  His sole instinct is to create chaos and instability, so that no one has the time to realize how incompetent and venial he really is; so his only plan when faced with a crisis is to make it worse.  He intentionally played the states off against each other, expecting people to blame their governors for the deaths while he took credit for the booming economy he’d inherited and squandered.[2]  He mocked the doctors and scientists who were trying to advise him and the nation, while turning to hucksters and conspiracy theorists who said everything from “it’s just a cold” to “disease is caused by demon sperm.”  As predicted, his reckless policy of “rob the poor, give to the rich” together with his general hubris, indolence, cowardice, impulsiveness and stubborn ignorance led to a national disaster.  And, as his long-time friend, lawyer and fixer Michael Cohen had predicted, he attempted a coup rather than accept defeat at the ballot box.[3]  After all, Donald Trump had spent decades saying that you should never admit defeat, and even claimed his half-dozen bankruptcies were brilliant business moves rather than failures; why would he suddenly start admitting defeat at his advanced age? 

            And, like some mass hysteria or epidemic-level Stockholm Syndrome, the Republican party follows him lock-step, marching over every cliff, seeing themselves as Achilles’ Myrmidons in their loyalty while the rest of us see only lemmings.  At least lemmings don’t drag other animals with them to the sea.  Republicans have become the party that will pay $400 to get a fake “vaccine passport” rather than just get a free vaccine.  They’ll refuse the vaccine because they don’t know what’s in it, while winding up in the hospital with poisoning from ingesting horse dewormer and fish-tank cleaner.  They’ll worry about carbon dioxide poisoning from wearing the same mask their doctors and nurses will wear for twelve hours a day while treating them when they show up at the hospital with failing lungs and bursting capillaries in their skulls from COVID-19.  And when some business tries to protect its employees and customers, or teachers try to protect their students by following the recommendations of doctors and scientists who spent decades studying viruses, they are harassed, threatened, even murdered by Republicans—people who only a few years ago were sane, normal neighbors and friends and steady customers.  The Republican Party has become a death cult, like Jonestown or Heaven’s Gate or the Manson Family, only on a larger scale.  Hitler’s plan to destroy German homes and industry was an attempted national suicide, because he’d lost the war and wanted to take everything down with him.  White American Fundamentalists are even more insane; they see this Gotterdammerung , this self-imposed apocalypse, not as a twilight of the gods but as the great dawn of the Savior they created in their own image.  The Republican Party is an arsonist who thinks he’s a phoenix, and would burn down the whole world so that he can attain immortality.  And like an unvaccinated COVID-19 patient gasping out their last breath, or burying an unvaccinated spouse or child, they will be more surprised than anyone when this fails.


[1] Caroline Mortimer, “Donald Trump Believes He Has Superior Genes, Biographer Claims;” Independent September 20, 2016 (https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/donald-trump-president-superior-genes-pbs-documentary-eugenics-a7338821.html)

[2] Charlotte Klein, “The 5 Most Damning Things Jared Kushner Told Bob Woodward about Trump’s COVID Strategy;” Intelligencer October 28, 2020 (https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2020/10/the-5-worst-things-kushner-said-about-trumps-covid-strategy.html)

[3] Rob Porter, “Michael Cohen Predicts Trump Will ‘Never Leave Office Peacefully’ Because He’s Terrified of Being Sent to Prison;” Business Insider August 14, 2020 (https://www.businessinsider.com/michael-cohen-book-foreword-trump-will-never-leave-office-peacefully-2020-8)

How the Republican Party Became a Death Cult (pt. 1)

August 24, 2021

How the Republican Party Became a Death Cult

Most troubling of all, perhaps, was a sentiment the expert said a member of Kushner’s team expressed: that because the virus had hit blue states hardest, a national plan was unnecessary and would not make sense politically. “The political folks believed that because it was going to be relegated to Democratic states, that they could blame those governors, and that would be an effective political strategy,” said the expert.

—–Katherine Eban, “How Jared Kushner’s Secret Testing Plan Went ‘Poof’ Into Thin Air” [1]

            The political world has turned upside-down since I was a child.  Growing up in the South in the 1960s, the Democratic Party had near total control of politics, and was often corrupt (Huey Long, etc.) and/or violently racist (Faubus, Wallace, etc.).  White Evangelicals, still stinging from the rebuke they suffered in the Scopes Monkey Trial debacle, often counseled the faithful to stay out of politics and let the state run its affairs; this had the added payoff that it allowed the Southern Baptist Convention and other churches to officially stay out of the segregation debate as a secular political issue unrelated to “saving souls.”  It was generally held that in many areas, particularly the rural counties that were the majority in the South, no one could win office without at least the passive acceptance of the Klu Klux Klan.  Republicans in the South were a minority of the racially progressive, the pro-business (which often meant pro-Northern business, as the South was economically undeveloped), and/or the educated, any group that couldn’t easily ally itself with the KKK. 

            What the Hell happened to the GOP?  How did they go from Teddy Roosevelt anti-corruption progressivism to millions of Americans googling “Emoluments Clause” virtually every day from 2016-2020?  How did they go from Eisenhower sending the 82nd Airborne to desegregate Little Rock  to Donald Trump sending in armed marshals to attack unarmed and peaceful protestors for a photo-op?  How did they go from the Party of Lincoln to the party that stormed the Capitol waiving Confederate flags?  The short answer is, “Nixon’s Southern Strategy,” but I’d prefer a bit more detail.

            R. J. Rushdoony and the Chalcedon Foundation

            Evangelicals did not simply wake up one day and decide all that “character matters” stuff was bunk, Northern billionaires were better than working-class people and having Russia like us was more important than protecting our own troops when a KGB officer-turned-politician puts a bounty on their heads.  The monster that is Trumpism (or Qristianity) flowed from a noxious cauldron bubbling with the worst political impulses of Western civilization.  And the guy who provided the first poisoned toad[2] was an avowedly nonpartisan and rather apolitical theologian:  Rousas John Rushdoony. [3]  Rushdoony was a rather eccentric and extreme Fundamentalist Calvinist even by the standards of the party of Barry Goldwater.  His opposition to Communism, evolution and the general breakdown of morality he saw around him led him to call for the end of democracy and even of the nation-state.  He argued for a Christian society where the government would be too weak and decentralized to interfere with businesses, but would punish non-Christians with death by stoning.  A child of refugees from the Armenian genocide, he went on to become a Holocaust denier and allied with neo-Confederate slavery apologists.  To an outsider, he seems to be a mass of contradictions.  He was initially funded by businessmen who were looking for a moral and theological cloak for their anti-New Deal policies; later even the more secular libertarians and more visible Evangelicals alike distanced themselves from him, while adopting and mainstreaming many of his views.  His central theme was that post-Enlightenment  civilization had turned away from God, who is the only source of truth; to regain their moral compass, their political cornerstone and their scientific guiding light, humanity must return to God’s revelation as it is expressed in the Bible.  This would mean a society resembling an idealized version of the Book of Judges more than Locke’s vision of a civil commonwealth:  a society where nonbelief was exterminated as a deadly threat, but without any central authority beyond the family.  In its original form, Christian Reconstructionism is rather utopian and mostly harmless.  Rushdoony expected this social revolution to occur spontaneously, by the grace of God, and not through human political activity or imposition.  It might take a thousand years, but eventually humanity would recognize their liberal errors and return to the Gospel (as that Gospel was interpreted by Fundamentalists like himself and his Orthodox Presbyterian Church).  But already, the poisonous brew that threatens to destroy our nation was coming together.  Rushdoony was funded by capitalists looking for a Christianity that would counter the dominant theologies of the day, which mostly supported a stronger social safety net.  FDR’s policies may have saved thousands of Americans from starvation and millions from permanent generational poverty, and Eisenhower’s policies may have started a movement towards racial justice that was centuries overdue, but Rushdoony was worried about the dangers of liberalism rather than the horrors of genocide and oppression which had afflicted Jews, Blacks and even his own Armenian people just in his lifetime.  He allied himself with business interests who cared more for protecting their own profits than in building up their nation; and he later joined in the historical revisionism of slavery apologists and Holocaust deniers.  While he himself was suspicious of political activism, his efforts to publicize his views brought together money, racism and Christian Dominionism.


[1] Katherine Eban, “How Jared Kushner’s Secret Testing Plan Went ‘Poof’ Into Thin Air;” Vanity Fair July 30, 2020 (https://www.vanityfair.com/news/2020/07/how-jared-kushners-secret-testing-plan-went-poof-into-thin-air)

[2] William Shakespeare, Macbeth, Act 4, scene 1

[3] Mary Whorton, “The Chalcedon Problem:  Rousas John Rushdoony and the Origins of Christian Reconstructionism;” Church History vol 77, no. 2, (June 2008, Cambridge University Press ) pp. 399-437

Democracy Versus Authoritarianism:  Political Philosophy in a Time of COVID

May 13, 2021

Democracy Versus Authoritarianism:  Political Philosophy in a Time of COVID

 For since it can never be supposed to be the will of the society that the legislative should have a power to destroy that which everyone designs secure by entering into society, and for which the people submitted themselves to legislators of their own making, whenever the legislators endeavor to take away and destroy the property of the people, or to reduce them to slavery under arbitrary power, they put themselves into a state of war with the people, who are thereupon absolved from any further obedience…

John Locke, The Second Treatise of Civil Government

Since the first shots of the American Revolution, this nation has been devoted to the notion that only representative government is just and morally legitimate.  With somewhat less unanimous affirmation, we have also held that representative government was the best.  As one of our former overlords, now believers in democracy, put it:  “Indeed it has been said that democracy is the worst form of Government except for all those other forms that have been tried from time to time..”  By contrast, others have argued that democracy might be “just” but that it was just too inefficient to survive; and still others have declared that democracy itself is not only inefficient, but also in some sense immoral and corrupting of its citizens.  Fascists, for example, complain that democracy makes a nation “soft” and “effeminate,” too peace-loving, coddling children and putting families ahead of the national economy.  Theocrats claim democracy is too “secular” and turns people away from God, specifically the theocrat’s own religious dogma and organization.  The rich complain that democracy allows the rabble too much power, failing to protect the powerful from victimization by the poor.

When the Berlin Wall fell, it was heralded as the final victory of democracy over authoritarianism and oppression.  The contest was settled; freedom had won.  Some called it “the end of history.”[1]  But with the rise of Islamist dictatorships and insurgencies, and Christian Dominionist and nationalist populist movements in the West, the longed-for golden age of prosperity and peace vanished before our eyes.  Instead, 2016 saw Brexit, Trump, Bolsonaro and many other retreats from the free politics and free markets that were supposedly triumphant, and a worldwide rise of isolationism, xenophobia, protectionism, racism and authoritarianism.  Nowhere was this more visible, or more catastrophic than in the United States, where a shallow, decadent, close-minded, deeply ignorant, deeply fearful egotist backed by oodles of inherited wealth took over first one of the major political parties, then the presidency, despite multiple scandals, ties to hostile foreign governments and losing the popular vote.  Despite the obvious lack of a serious mandate, he and his fellow business cronies threw themselves into reversing decades-long national priorities, undermining allies around the world while appeasing generational foes, and rewriting policies in ways that enriched themselves and their business interests.  Other nations looked on, our traditional democratic allies in dismay, dictators and strongmen in triumph.  In a few years the political conversation in the popular culture went from “Is history solved for all time?” to, “Is democracy dead?  Has the age of the authoritarian finally arrived?”

In 2019, the author of the notion of “the end of history” expressed disappointment about the rise in religious and populist authoritarianism, which seemed to refute his optimistic claims.  In the meantime, authoritarian governments had grown steadily bolder and more boastful over the supposed failure and imminent collapse of democracy.  Even the U.S. government chose people for important posts who said things like, “I’m not a big fan of democracy.”[2]  However, this year which supposedly showed the failure of democracy actually showed the ultimate weakness of authoritarianism.  If the authoritarians win, 2019 has shown us that the ultimate end of civilization, and possibly humanity itself could result.

As 2019 drew to a close, a doctor in China noticed a SARS-like virus in some of his patients.[3]  He sought to warn his fellow doctors, in an online conference, to take extra precautions to avoid infection.  The government of China, an authoritarian regime which prides itself particularly on its superior efficiency compared to the chaotic, individualist West, responded by immediately threatening him with prison for spreading seditious rumors.  By the time they finally admitted he was right, and that his efforts were heroic and patriotic, it was too late; the doctor himself had become infected and died of COVID-19, one of the first of what soon would be millions.  Donald Trump, who had earlier disbanded the NSA group formed to fight pandemics because it was an Obama initiative, declared that concern over the coronavirus was “the Democrats’ new hoax.”  While he initially seemed to be saying the the disease was real but the worry was politically motivated, his followers heard “hoax” and insisted (and still do) that the disease was fake.  Trump supporter Rush Limbaugh said COVID-19 was just the common cold.  FOX News called it a “hoax.”[4]  All echoed Trump’s claim that the virus would never become a problem in the United States; we had 15 cases and soon it would be zero.[5]  Anyone who said otherwise, Trump, the Republican Party and the right-wing media proclaimed, was just trying to stir up trouble for political gain—pretty much what the Chinese government had said to silence the doctor who tried to warn others about the new virus.  By the end of his presidency, Trump’s non-response to the epidemic ravaging the nation had wrecked the growing economy left him by Obama, killed hundreds of thousands of Americans, sickened millions, left many thousands with long-term or permanent disabilities, turned states against each other to compete for resources to fight to save their citizens without direction from the federal government, polarized the nation and left most of his base still convinced that the whole thing is just  hoax, and anyone who says otherwise or seeks treatment or a vaccine is a traitor.

Brazil is still a young democracy, having rid itself of a military junta in 1985. In 2019, right-wing populist and former military officer Jair Bolsonaro was elected President, and in 2020 he, too, faced the threat of the oncoming pandemic.  His response has been no different than the other authoritarians:  deny, suppress, scapegoat, and fail.  Brazil was on track to surpass the United States for the worst response to COVID-19; then along came India.  India, the world’s most populous democracy, initially seemed to fair pretty well against the pandemic, and its leader boasted about his nation’s superior response and mocked the nations who had warned of India’s vulnerabilities.  Instead, the authoritarian leader of the right-wing HIndu nationalist BJP, like his political ally Donald Trump, continued to hold massive political rallies, push for huge public gatherings, while failing to consistently advocate for masks, social distancing and other measures that are proven to provide cost-effective protection for the people.  As I write this, the Indian health care system is collapsing under the strain of literally countless multitudes of sick and dying patients; the dead pile up faster than they can be cremated, and bodies are being thrown into the Ganges river rather than being left to rot on land.[6]

None of this should be particularly surprising, and it points to the fundamental, often fatal flaw in authoritarian politics.  This nation is a 200+-year old philosophical experiment, attempting to prove that the theories of representative government laid out by such thinkers as Rousseau and John Locke are workable, despite all that was said against them at the time and since.  The guiding principle of Locke, and the revolutionaries inspired by him, is that legitimate government authority derives from the people themselves, and it is the task of the government to enact the collective will of the people.  Locke’s “social contract” style of thought has dominated American political thinking from the time we were arrogant colonials casting off the ties God had forged binding subject to king.  But Locke’s thought is itself partly founded on the previous Enlightenment philosopher Thomas Hobbes, an apologist for absolute monarchy.  Hobbes argued that the government was based on a tacit agreement or “covenant” between the people and their government; they would give up certain rights such as the right to personal revenge against anyone they felt had wronged them, and agree to obey the laws of the government and trust in its justice; in exchange, the government (or “sovereign”) would protect the people’s fundamental, “inalienable rights.”[7]  Outside of such a commonwealth, every individual had a right to do or act as he pleased;[8] but since everyone had such a right, no one had any duty to respect the rights of others.  Without a strong outside force to bludgeon the rest of us into line, there would be unending conflict, war of each against all, and life would be nasty, brutish and above all, short.  The sovereign creates the laws of the commonwealth, imposes them upon the rest of us, and crushes opposition; we accept this because the alternative is miserable anarchy.  And since the sovereign creates the laws, it is not itself subject to them; it is above the law. 

Hobbes acknowledged that “the sovereign” could be a group as easily as an individual, but favored an absolute and unitary monarchy over a divided and hence weaker government.[9]  One reason he gives is that a king will be more attentive to the welfare of the kingdom.  Every person is most concerned with his personal wellbeing; if the national interests conflict with the personal interests of a leader, the personal will win out.  In a oligarchy or democracy, multiple leaders compete against each other and their interests will thus often be at odds with those of the nation as a whole; but a king’s personal interests are identical with those of the nation since it is his nation.  His ego is tied up with its success; its glory is his glory, its wealth his wealth.  Thus an absolute monarch will, Hobbes says, strive for the welfare of the people, not because he must or owes it to them, but because it is more glorious to rule over a rich, enlightened, peaceful, literate and artistic nation than over a vulgar, dirty, impoverished rabble.  The pride of the authoritarian leader is the motivation for national policy and guarantor of the national welfare.

This doesn’t work, but it does make one valid point:  authoritarians are motivated by their own egos, not some slavish devotion to “the common good.”  That is why Trump, Bolsonaro, Modi, and so many others held super-spreader rallies during a pandemic, where they could stand before thousands of adoring worshippers willing to risk their lives, and the lives of their families and neighbors, to stroke the Dear Leader’s ego.  It’s also why showing any concern for public health is denounced as disloyalty; it implies that something matters more than the leader’s glory.  As Amartya Sen argued in his Nobel-winning research in economics, fully-functional democracies (ones with a free and independent press, rule of law, free and fair markets and easy access to a meaningful vote) don’t have famines, and generally have longer life expectancies, because they must; if the people have power, the government must see to the people’s welfare or be voted out.  Where there is a compliant propaganda press, leaders who ignore the law without consequences, markets dominated by a few powerful monopolies controlled by oligarchs, and elections rendered meaningless by manipulation or flat-out fraud—-as we increasingly have under Republican policies, particularly during the Trump years——the government feels free to tell people they should be proud to die to keep the economy humming and to support the president.[10] 

In fact, as Aristotle pointed out long ago, the authoritarian cares about holding power; this might mean seeking to be loved by the people, but often means instead weakening, depriving, harassing, oppressing, and essentially warring on one’s own people.[11]  Kim Jung-Un is only one extreme example of this sort of tyrant; for every one “benevolent despot,” there are scores of Amins or Kims.  If the people are terrified, or simply too hungry to muster the energy to rebel and too ignorant to imagine any other possibility or figure out how to resist their oppression, the tyrant is safe.  And above all, the authoritarian wants to feel safe. 

The paradox is that the more power the authoritarian can seize, the closer he or she comes to being a full-blown tyrant, the less secure the authoritarian is.  The true patriot, who cares about the nation, its laws and traditions, can feel the most secure precisely because the true patriot considers power something to be used for some worthy goal, not something to be grasped for its own sake.  There is likely no one who fully meets that ideal, but some come closer than others; those are the ones who can lose magnanimously, win humbly and gratefully, lead or follow as required, and rejoice when the nation prospers regardless.  Plato’s ideal leader was one who didn’t wish to lead at all, but who recognized that the price of good persons refusing power is to have bad ones in charge over them.  Aristotle defined a “citizen” as one who both had a hand in making the laws, and was bound to obey them, capable both of leading and following as required.  But anyone who starts to love the power and the status will start to fear losing it.  Saddam Hussein, after becoming undisputed master of Iraq, predicted that if he ever lost power they wouldn’t find even the tip of his fingers intact; his enemies would cut him to pieces.  He had near godlike control over his subjects, with fifty-foot tall idols of himself and multiple palace complexes, but he lived in fear every day.  Aristotle observed that a stable country is one where as many people as possible feel they have a stake in its stability[12]  Locke said that the ultimate foundation of a true civil society is the will of the majority of the people.  Both are making much the same point:  that the state, and thus also the leaders, are actually stronger when power is shared.  The authoritarian fears their own people; that is why, Aristotle says, tyrants recruit foreigners as bodyguards, while in democracies the leaders are guarded by their own citizens.  The tyrant, and any authoritarian to the extent that they approach maximum personal power, is at war with their own people. 

Trump’s followers like to claim that he was a very successful president until he wasn’t, and that he can’t be held responsible for that because his wildly successful presidency was derailed by an unpredictable and unavoidable catastrophe.  The principle facts of this claim are disputable; Trump’s success through 2019 was not as stellar as he boasted, and many warned his administration of the dangers of a possible pandemic and even left a “playbook” for fighting one, which he threw away.  But these disputed facts aside, the real lesson of the COVID-19 pandemic is that authoritarian governments will fail to protect their people in the event of a catastrophe.  They do not feel themselves answerable to the people, so they look first to their own preservation and enhancement of power; the first instinct of the authoritarian is to regard warnings of disaster to be attacks on the leader’s image and power.  First, they will seek to silence the prophets of doom; next, they will seek to cover up the crisis when it occurs; then they will deny they were warned and/or deny that they refused to act; and at last they will grow impatient with the cries of the victims who make the leader look ineffective and too weak to fix the problem.  Whether it was a pandemic in 2019, or a war, or recession, there was always going to be some crisis.  And in a crisis, while a democracy might stumble as various groups try to wrap their collected heads around the problem and find a response based on multiple perspectives and interests, an authoritarian can be trusted to act swiftly and decisively—-for the protection of the leader, and against the needs of the people. 

I would like to believe that the failure of Trumpism to handle even a predicted crisis for which our government had spent years preparing and which we had months to see coming would lead to a world-wide recognition of the weakness of authoritarianism, and a return to the pro-democracy trends we saw towards the end of the 20th century.  However, the eagerness of Republicans to first act surprised at an attempted coup despite many warnings, then to ignore it and ask everyone to forget it and “move on,” and finally to justify it with false claims about the election, does not give me much confidence that they’ve seen any fault in the authoritarian model.  In 1980 Paul Weyrich argued before the National Republican Convention in Dallas that Republicans do better when people don’t vote, and therefore it was in the party’s interest to work against the democratic principles this country claims to champion.  Since then, the Republican party has worked vigorously to make voting as difficult and as pointless as possible, to undermine people’s confidence in the democratic process, to discourage civic interest or participation by the majority of citizens, and to convince their base that any fact that didn’t fit their preconceived notions, whims or prejudices was simply politically motivated “fake news” from “liberals” and should be ignored.  The culmination of this forty-year project has been to create a conservative electorate that lives in its own alternate reality, rejects science and history and any other expertise while blindly obeying any party mouthpiece, denies that it is even possible for them to lose an election, and is willing to resort to violence when counting the ballots tells them otherwise.  Republicans are so far from the principles of representative government that they openly work for minority rule, and embrace a failed coup leader as their best chance for victory—-victory for their party and the oligarchs who back it, regardless of the fate of the nation. 

I don’t know if the authoritarians will ultimately succeed, or if freedom-loving patriots will put aside previous partisan divides to defeat them.  What I do know is that there will continue to be crises that threaten this nation, and even this world.  And I know that authoritarian governments will not meet these crises.  It is in their interests, and in their nature to ignore bad news, cover it up, blame others for their failures, make bad things much worse and corresponding good fortune less beneficial for any but the ruling elite.  Eventually the people lose all faith in their government, which suits the authoritarian fine when things are going well since an apathetic and dispirited populace is more easily ruled.  However, when the government finally realizes that it must act, it will find that not only is it too late to avoid disaster, but the people will likely refuse to cooperate.  I cite as example the experience of Liberia during the Ebola crisis; the people had been lied to so often that when the government really needed them to undertake basic safety measures, they refused, and turned a crisis into a catastrophe.  As J.S. Mill wrote in his essay “On Representative Government,” even the most “benign” despotism tends to infantilize its subjects.  People under an authoritarian regime become passive, detached, and thoughtless.  And I would argue, authoritarianism also infantilizes the leaders.  We mature by encountering others with whom we must reckon and negotiate; but the authoritarian will not tolerate equals and thus never encounters an “other.”  Instead, as Aristotle said, the authoritarian surrounds himself with flatterers and sycophants.  A functioning democracy is a society of adults, who argue in good faith, who accept reality, who strive to be rational and just.  A despotism is a nation led by an overgrown toddler, who seeks to bully the other children on the playground.  In a high-tech, fast-changing world such as ours, with an unending stream of crises small, large and existential, we will not long survive as a race of toddlers.


[1] Tamer Fakahany, “‘The End of History’?  30 Years on, Does That Idea Still Hold Up?” Associated Press Nov. 7, 2019)

[2] Peter Wade, “Trump’s Fed Nominee Isn’t a ‘Big Believer in Democracy;’” Rolling Stone April 14, 2019 (https://www.rollingstone.com/politics/politics-news/stephen-moore-democracy-comments-822153/)

[3] Stephanie Hegarty, “The Chinese Doctor Who Tried to Warn Others about Coronavirus;” BBC 6 Feb 2020 (https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-51364382)

[4] JM Rieger, “Sean Hannity denied calling coronavirus a hoax nine days after he called coronavirus a hoax;” Washington Post March 19, 2020 (https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2020/03/19/sean-hannity-denied-calling-coronavirus-hoax-nine-days-after-he-called-coronavirus-hoax/)

[5] Mary Papenfuss, “It’s Been 1 Year Since Trump Boasted 15 COVID-19 Cases Would Soon Be ‘Close To Zero’” Huffington Post Feb. 26, 2021 (https://www.huffpost.com/entry/donald-trump-15-covid-19-cases-anniversary_n_6039a526c5b601179ebd8ccc)

[6] “Amid India’s COVID-19 Surge, Dozens of Dead Bodies Found Floating in Ganges River;” CBS News May 11, 2021 (https://www.cbsnews.com/news/india-covid-ganges-river-bodies/)

[7] Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, part II, chapter 17

[8] I say “he” because Hobbes meant “he;” he treats women not as citizens themselves but as one of those things men fight over.

[9] Leviathan chapter 19

[10] Bess Levin, “Texas Lt. Governor: Old People Should Volunteer to Die to Save the Economy;” Vanity Fair March 24, 2020

[11] Aristotle, The Politics, Book V, chapter xi

[12] Politics Book II, chapter ix

GOP Politics Are Killing Wisconsin Democracy, and Wisconsinites—and they’re coming for you!

October 12, 2020

GOP Politics Are Killing Wisconsin Democracy, and Wisconsinites—and they’re coming for you!

“Famines are easy to prevent if there is a serious effort to do so, and a democratic government, facing elections and criticisms from opposition parties and independent newspapers, cannot help but make such an effort.”

—–Amartya Sen

            U.S. Supreme Court Justice Louis Brandeis described the states as “laboratories of democracy.”  In our federal system of government, the states have considerable autonomy from the national government, and can implement many policies as chosen by their own voters and governments .  If something works at the state level, the nation may well implement it later; if it fails, the state can reverse course more quickly while the nation avoids the misstep in the first place.  In this analogy, Wisconsin’s health system is the frog in Ang Lee’s Hulk

            For decades, the Republican Party of the United States of America has expressed deep misgivings about democracy, and has sought to both legally restrict the ability of citizens to vote and to more informally discourage the majority of people from even trying.  The more informal, or even illegal methods they have adopted have included intimidation by “poll watchers” to threaten and harass legal voters, stealing absentee ballots in North Carolina, repeatedly purging voter rolls of thousands of legal citizen voters who live in primarily Democratic areas, and so on.  In Wisconsin, the GOP is carrying out its grandest experiment yet.  In 2010 they gerrymandered the state so thoroughly that even though 53% of Wisconsinites voted for the Democratic Party, 64% of the seats in the state legislature went to Republicans.  Democracy, rule of the people and by the people and for the people, is dead in Wisconsin, at least on the state level.  Instead, they have minority rule.  Republican politicians even admit that they are not representing the majority and see no need to do so; they only want to enact the desires of the “conservative voters” who sent them.  The disproportionately white, rural, and less educated minority will dictate to the more diverse, more urbanized and more educated majority, with little knowledge of or interest in the needs of the majority of the citizens. 

            Wisconsin has thus become the laboratory for the grandest experiment in democracy possible:  what happens when you abolish democracy?  What happens when you take the national priorities and policies of the Republican party, to reduce voter participation and weaken democracy itself in order to defeat the Democrats, and carry them out more ruthlessly than has been possible previously?  There are many states where the Republican party gerrymandered themselves an overwhelming majority in the legislature when the electorate was in fact only marginally Republican in the 2010 reapportionment period, but Wisconsin locked in not just a dilution of the will of the people, but its utter subversion.  We get to see what would happen across the nation if other states, and the nation as a whole, follow Wisconsin’s example and allow Republicans to replace functional democracy with the sort of “managed democracy” employed by Putin and other 21st century autocrats.  And the result of that experiment has been a disaster, not just for Wisconsin but the nation as a whole.

            Wisconsin has had the worst response to the COVID-19 pandemic of any state in the nation.  To be more accurate, they have had no state-wide response at all.  The only actions by the Wisconsin state legislature and Republican-dominated Wisconsin Supreme Court have been to block any attempt by the Democratic governor to implement common-sense policies such as those enacted by neighboring states.  The state legislature seized control of the state’s pandemic response, and then basically shut down.  As a result, Wisconsin’s coronavirus numbers are climbing higher and faster than anywhere else.  Wisconsinites are sickened, some injured for life, and others dying because the Wisconsin Republican Party cares more about scoring political points over the governor than they do about actually governing the state.  They grabbed the wheel, popped open a beer to celebrate, and promptly passed out and let the car careen over a cliff.

            None of this should have surprised anyone.  It was all explained by the Nobel-prize winning work of Amartya Sen decades ago.  At a time when many economists were looking towards centrally-controlled markets like China and the USSR as the way of the future, Dr. Sen’s research showed how political structure, more than GDP alone, could foster the well-being of citizens.  His study of the Bengal famine of 1943 showed that the problem was not food production.  There was enough food, but the poor couldn’t afford it.  The colonial government could have helped them, but chose not to; they were appointed by the British Empire and were answerable to the Crown, not the Indian people.  Even when cultures and GDP were similar, as in Costa Rica and Brazil in the 1970s, life expectancies could vary by ten years or more; in Costa Rica the government was answerable to the people, while Brazil at that time was ruled by a military junta.  In a functional democracy, the government must keep the people’s support, and must listen to them quickly when their bellies grumble.  Colonial powers, military strongmen or other oppressors are generally deaf to the cries of the suffering; they have other priorities.  So while other economists were looking at the Chinese Communist regime with the hope that the country’s rising GDP would lead to greater freedom and a more humane government, Sen argued (and had the statistics to back up his claim) that this was backwards; democracy in fact drives economic development, and has other benefits for the citizens even beyond material prosperity, which leads to health, the elimination of widespread hunger, and so on. 

            When the Republican Party in Wisconsin turned its back on democracy, it likewise turned away from sound government that responds to the needs of the citizens.  Instead, it became a mechanism for the rural minority to rule over the majority.  Since epidemics hit urban areas first and filter into rural, less populated areas more slowly, the Republican base didn’t see any need to address the coronavirus pandemic.  The suffering it caused was far from their farms, and the people who were infected were strangers to them even though they were fellow Wisconsinites.  As the GOP politicians themselves said, they weren’t there to represent or worry about all Wisconsinites or even about the majority of them; they were only elected to serve the interests and desires of their conservative base.  This meant out-of-state billionaires like the Koch brothers, and the social conservatives who see the more liberal, educated and diverse populations of the cities as cultural enemies and intellectual contagion.   Better to keep their moral and mental purity, and let the virus finish off their opponents for them.  Just as drug use was only treated as a public health problem when opioids ravaged the white rural and non-college educated base of the GOP, so too COVID-19 was treated as a problem of the corrupt Democrat cities, and the Wisconsin state legislature is perfectly pleased to let the virus ravage people who didn’t vote for them in the first place.  It’s callous, short-sighted, even stupid, but it’s also perfectly natural, a pattern repeated across the globe and throughout history.  The more democratic a government, the stronger its commitment to free and fair elections, widening access to the ballot box, to rule of law and fighting corruption, to free markets not dominated by either excess regulation or to monopolies and cronyism, and to a free press keeping the people informed, the better its response to crises affecting the people. 

            The GOP Wisconsin experiment in extreme gerrymandering, voter suppression and pandering to billionaire donors and populist ressentiment has led to the result which even a passing understanding of political and economic philosophy predicted:  a government with no interest in actually governing, no motivation to take notice of the needs of the people it governs, with disastrous impact on the health and life expectancy of the people.  In the name of economic prosperity, the GOP rejected one of the primary drivers for true prosperity, namely democracy, and now the Wisconsin economy is hamstrung by the sickening of its consumers and work force.  What is worse, the public health infrastructure is nearing collapse, with the state already preparing to open a massive field hospital to handle the ever-increasing load of coronavirus patients. 

            Wisconsin’s Republicans have shown the nation the inevitable conclusion of Republican policies for the nation, if they are allowed to continue pursuing the strategy they mapped out in 1980 of relying on voter suppression instead of voter recruitment.  Just as Gov. Brownback in Kansas showed the utter idiocy of Republican economic theories by nearly bankrupting his state, the Wisconsin GOP has shown the moral and functional bankruptcy of GOP politics.  Republicans were not always “the Stupid Party,” as Bobby Jindal named them.  The Republicans I went to college with in the 1970s were, by and large, intelligent, thoughtful, patriotic and committed to the freedom of the individual expressed through voting.  That party is largely dead, and is not coming back anytime soon.  If and when Donald Trump, his family, his cronies, and his enablers have all been removed from power, and true, responsible conservatives return to lead a pragmatic conservative party, then it will be safe to vote Republican again.  Today, and next year, and likely for some years to come, the only way to protect the economy, the public health, and the security of this nation is to vote against every Republican candidate from the Presidential candidate down to county clerk, until they get the message that even conservative voters want responsive, responsible government committed to democracy and the public good.

SOURCES

Editorial.  “Cries of Voter Fraud Should be Aimed at Those Committing It:  Republicans.  Las Vegas Sun, July 16, 2020.  https://lasvegassun.com/news/2020/jul/16/cries-of-voter-fraud-should-be-aimed-at-those-comm/

Blue, Miranda.  “Seven Times Conservatives Have Admitted They Don’t Want People to Vote.”  Right Wing Watch:  a project of People for the American Way September 24, 2015.  https://www.rightwingwatch.org/post/seven-times-conservatives-have-admitted-they-dont-want-people-to-vote/

Lambert, Jonathan.  “Good News about Democracy:  It’s Good for your Health.”  NPR July 4, 2019.  https://www.npr.org/sections/goatsandsoda/2019/07/04/738477296/good-news-about-democracy-its-good-for-your-health?utm_term=nprnews&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=npr

Rauch, Jonathan and David Wittes.  “Boycott the Republican Party.”  The Atlantic. March 2018.  https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/03/boycott-the-gop/550907/

Romano, Andrew.  “Wisconsin is Battling America’s Worst Coronavirus Outbreak, and Wisconsin’s Broken Politics are Partly to Blame.”  Yahoo! News October 10, 2020 https://www.yahoo.com/news/wisconsin-is-battling-americas-worst-coronavirus-outbreak-and-the-states-broken-politics-is-partially-to-blame-143650745.html

Paul, Shantosh.  “Eclipsing Dissent and Democracy.”  The Economic Times, April 4, 2020.  https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/blogs/et-commentary/eclipsing-dissent-and-democracy/

What the Right Gets Wrong: about the Antichrist

September 17, 2020

What the Right Gets Wrong: about the Antichrist

 

Historians say that America is an apocalyptic land. The Puritan settlers saw their struggle to tame the wilderness as an apocalyptic struggle, and later saw the hand of Satan at work against them not only among the natives and the wild beasts of the forests but also among their own neighbors. During the American Revolution pamphlets proclaimed King George III as the Antichrist. The Shakers believed that the Messiah had in fact returned, as a woman, their founder Ann Lee Stanley. Jumping ahead a few decades, in the early 1840s William Miller claimed to have deduced the exact date of the Rapture, through numerical calculations based particularly on the prophecies of Daniel. Around a half million people were sitting on hills in 1843 waiting to see Christ return—-this at a time when the entire population of the United States was only a few million, so it was close to 1% of the population by my count. Their conviction was so strong that, when Christ did not return, some went mad. Most returned home, to their unplowed fields and derisive neighbors. The event is known to history as The Great Disappointment.

But while thinking about the Rapture and the Antichrist has been an important part of American religion and even politics at times for even longer than we’ve been a nation, it was only in the 20th Century that this thinking became really systematized and mass marketed. In the 1920s a series of religious tracts, called The Fundamentals, was published and distributed freely to promote a socially conservative, biblically literal, and morally strict interpretation of Protestant Christianity in opposition to the godless and hedonistic culture of the Roaring Twenties, with its speakeasies, its flappers, and the devilishly seductive sounds of the saxophone. This was the beginning of what we today call “Fundamentalism.” And perhaps because the apocalyptic portions of the Bible are so clearly not “literally true” in any literal meaning of the word “literally,” Fundamentalists have been drawn to, even fixated on precisely those passages. A truly literal reading of the Revelation of John would look like a Godzilla movie: “I saw a giant beast with seven heads and ten horns standing by the sea,” and so on. The problem is that Daniel, Revelation and other apocalyptic writings, Jewish and Christian, Scriptural and extracanonical, were written using symbols, even code, which the faith community could recognize and understand but to outsiders would seem to be gibberish. An obvious example is where Jesus is described as a white-haired man with a sword coming out of his mouth; the unhistorical depiction of him as old symbolized his timeless authority while the sword symbolized the power of his words. Furthermore, apocalyptic writing is not linear; it is often depicted as a vision or dream, and like a dream it tends to skip around. There are two different descriptions of the end of the universe in John’s revelation alone. But the Fundamentalist Protestants were determined to find a single, literal interpretation for all these different prophecies, written by different authors centuries apart, as a response to the materialist scientific narrative they feared was taking over the culture. Ironically, in their desire to refute the scientific world view which they saw epitomized in Darwinism, they wound up accepting much of the scientific standard of “truth.” Prior to this time, most religious thinkers even in the Epistles had seen Scripture as both historically and symbolically true; and the symbolic was often viewed as more important. St. Augustine didn’t doubt the reality of either the history presented in the Bible nor its future predictions; but he believed the bare historical facts were far less important than the allegorical and symbolic elements, the spiritual realities revealed in these historical claims. For modern Fundamentalism, the strategy of confronting science with Scriptural “superscience” meant that the emphasis fell on the literal, historical claims, while the spiritual import was overshadowed. Augustine didn’t doubt that there would be a Rapture, but thought it far more important that you consider that you would meet God, whether in a thousand years or next Tuesday or both; so he didn’t seek to decipher the timeline. Fundamentalists have drawn out elaborate charts and maps of the coming end times, trying to identify some historical event or person as prefigured, making predicting the Rapture like an apocalyptic meteorological forecast: a prediction of coming facts whose value lies entirely in giving an accurate account of coming conditions so one can plan one’s activities for tomorrow. The result is that the more they focus on the “literal” truth and the coming factual events (which constantly change as one Rapture after another blows by) the less they focus on the things Jesus and the prophets said actually matter to God: to act justice, love mercy, walk humbly before God (Micah 6:8) and to give food to the hungry, to visit those in prison, and to welcome the alien (Matthew 25:31-46).

“Children, it is the last hour! As you have heard that antichrist is coming, so now many antichrists have come. From this we know that it is the last hour.” (1 John 2:18)

 

The first error of the Fundamentalists was to think of “the” Antichrist. John writes that there are many antichrists; when we see someone acting and speaking in a way the opposite of the Gospel, we know that person acts from the spirit of Antichrist. As another Scripture says, “by their fruits you shall know them.” When someone praises violence and revenge, that is the spirit of Antichrist.(1) When someone says that anyone foolish enough to go overseas to help fight Ebola deserves to suffer and should receive no help, that person speaks from the spirit of Antichrist.(2) The typical Fundamentalist approach to finding “the Antichrist” is to look for “signs:” events or facts supposed to be associated with the Antichrist as described in apocalyptic Scriptures. He’s supposed to be a great leader, so they look for a politician, particularly one whose political pronouncements differ from theirs (since obviously the Antichrist will be a self-proclaimed “liberal” and not a professed “conservative” trying to deceive anyone). He’s supposed to be a world leader, so they look at the United Nations as the “world empire” and its Secretary General as its “emperor,” regardless of the fact that the United Nations lacks both the power and the cohesion for such a task. Rather than entertain the “liberal” suggestion that Daniel was writing about Antiochus, and John of Patmos writing about Nero, and that their words speak to us today by describing general traits of evil and the promises of God to overcome it, they insist that the “literal” Antichrist must be a single present or future “ruler”—-no matter how strenuously they must interpret and allegorize the Scriptures to find this “literal” truth!

Fundamentalists with their “Thief in the Night,” “Left Behind” and The Late, Great Planet Earth have turned the Antichrist into a mythological monster or boogeyman fully as much as Hollywood did with “The Omen.” In doing so, they turned themselves from participants in God’s work into the audience. They expect to be watching safe from Heaven while the “bad people” who mocked them suffer torments galore. And what is the dividing line? What is the distinguishing characteristic of the good versus the bad, the saved versus the damned? It is not, primarily, whether they loved their neighbor as themselves. In “Thief in the Night” the main character is a churchgoing Christian who never does anything harmful to others, but she isn’t a Fundamentalist. She doesn’t expect a literal return of Jesus. In “Left Behind” one of those “left behind” is a young pastor whose entire congregation and senior pastor have vanished, leaving him because he didn’t believe hard enough. The problem is that the apocalyptic scriptures clearly describe the suffering of the faithful, but the Fundamentalist theology states that the faithful will be raptured away, safely and painlessly escaping the torments so gleefully and intricately described. To reconcile these claims, the Fundamentalists posit a third group, the good-but-not-good-enough, who will suffer because they refused to fully embrace Fundamentalist theology but who were basically good Christians and thus will get another chance, after they’ve been tortured and persecuted for their faulty theology.

The Antichrist is an expression for the power of evil and rebellion against God. It is literally “anti-Christ,” the opposite of Christ. The Fundamentalist theology too often turns the Antichrist into a thing, an external threat only. To oppose the Antichrist it is said to be necessary to believe in the literal reality of the Antichrist, but not necessary to act like Jesus or to follow His teachings. Jesus said, “You cannot serve God and Money,” (Matthew 6:24) but in the Left Behind Theology you can be rich beyond the dreams of avarice, so long as you have an intellectual conviction that the Antichrist will come and then Jesus will return. Jesus said, “Blessed are you who are poor,” (Luke 6:20), but in the “Left Behind” Theology your poverty counts for less than nothing. A liberal or liberation theologian who believes that Jesus loves the poor and calls us to love the poor, that sort of Christian the Left Behind Fundamentalist will declare is either damned to Hell with the Antichrist or, at best, doomed to endure the Tribulation before finally being allowed to join the “right” Christians who escaped all the trials by simply having a belief. A Prosperity Gospel preacher who says the poor are cursed, that they lack faith in God and therefore God is denying them material wealth while the rich are the most blessed and Godly people, that one the Left Behind Fundamentalist believe will accept as a fellow Christian and, if he or she merely says “I believe the Rapture is coming” that one will be raptured away and escape all the trials and tribulations that John and Daniel said the faithful would face. By turning the Antichrist from a spiritual danger and into a monster, the Fundamentalists have bled all the life out of the Gospel. They have made the Gospel safe for middle-class and rich people who want to be saved like Christians without either living like Christians or even admitting, humbly and repentantly, that they have failed to live as Christians and must rely on God’s gracious promise to count them as Christians anyway.(3)

To further protect themselves from having to actually live like Christians, the Fundamentalists who embrace this theology fundamentally altered the Biblical teachings of the Rapture. Eschatological scriptures, whether Daniel, The Revelation of John, the War Scroll of the Essenes or some other canonical or extracanonical writing, are written to people who are suffering persecution. The faithful are suffering. Thus, when the writer describes the future, the faithful will suffer. The one blessing is that the suffering will end, with the victory of good over evil. “And if those days had not been cut short, no one would be saved; but for the sake of the elect those days will be cut short.” (Matthew 24:22) The only mercy for anyone, faithful or faithless, is that the misery will end; but until that time we will all suffer together.

But in the Left Behind myth, only those who are “left behind” will suffer. The “good” people, the ones who affirm the literal truth of their teacher’s interpretation of the most obscure and controversial scriptures, will be raptured away, like passengers bailing out of a crashing plane and now floating gently to safety, watching with glee while those mean, wicked people perish in the fireball. Jesus may have said that the faithful are saved by showing love, particularly for the poor (Matthew 25:31-46), but for the Fundamentalists salvation is largely an intellectual matter: you accept certain facts and you are “saved,” while if you don’t then you are doomed no matter how much love, generosity and humility you have shown in your life. And conversely, one who accepts these salvation facts as presented can be a pretty prosperous and morally mediocre person, at best living up to the standards of middle-class respectability and perhaps not even that, perhaps even a very rich and powerful ruler just like the ones who persecute the faithful but avowing the right facts or at least giving lip service to them. You might even be a billionaire who has been accused, convicted or even confessed to a wide range of frauds, crimes, threats, sexual assaults, a braggart and a cheat, and be hailed by the “Left Behind” believers as “Chosen One” and “King of Israel” and other messianic titles. After all, the actual Christ, the humble, forgiving, weak, loving Jesus is hard to imitate, and it takes real faith to trust that figure to protect and save you; but the new messiah of the new gospel, the Prosperity and militaristic and lip-service gospel, who has all the worldly strength and worldly success, is easy to trust and easy to imitate, and many are those who find him (Matthew 7:13-14). So we find that richest, largest churches line up to proclaim Donald Trump as their messiah, literally, and see no contradiction between their Christian commitments and the lord they choose to shepherd those dreams——a lord who seems incapable of remembering even the simplest Biblical scripture, but instinctively quotes the Book of Satan.(4)

By changing “antichrist” from an adjective to a proper noun, from a spiritual to a political enemy, Evangelicals have inoculated themselves from the danger of ever having to take the threat of evil seriously. Jesus said, “Do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell” (Matthew 10:28), but so-called “Evangelicals,” literally “Good-News People,” created a theology where a worldly, objective, particular political leader would be the greatest danger they had to face; and a worldly political leader can only kill the body. So a supposed future murderer and tormentor of the body became the greatest possible danger, and thus the greatest possible good became a strong man, a leader who would have the worldly power to beat that bad guy at his own game; and it was all fine if the protector and savior demanded that Christians sacrifice their ideals, their commitment to love their neighbors, the poor and the oppressed, and instead embrace lust, gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, envy and pride by embracing a savior who for years openly boasted of his indulgences in all of them.(5) But the person who would actually seek God, whether you call yourself “Christian” or “Muslim” or nothing at all, will be the one who gives up looking for and fearing future boogymen, and worries more about those who already threaten to destroy the soul.

1 Donald Trump: “When someone attacks me, I always attack back…except 100x more. This has nothing to do with a tirade but rather, a way of life!” Twitter 7:56 AM · Nov 11, 2012; compare “Hate your enemies with a whole heart, and if a man smite you on one cheek, SMASH him on the other!” Book of Satan, III

2 Donald Trump: “The U.S. cannot allow EBOLA infected people back. People that go to far away places to help out are great-but must suffer the consequences! Twitter 8:22 PM · Aug 1, 2014; compare Matthew 25:36.
3 See Søren Kierkegaard, Practice in Christianity
4 “Man is the most vicious of all animals, and life is a series of battles ending in victory or defeat;” Donald Trump, People, Nov. 16, 1981 (https://people.com/archive/in-the-manhattan-real-estate-game-billionaire-donald-trump-holds-the-winning-cards-vol-16-no-20/ compare “Satan represents man as just another animal, sometimes better, more often worse than those that walk on all-fours, who, because of his ‘divine spiritual and intellectual development,’ has become the most vicious animal of all!” The Nine Satanic Statements, https://www.churchofsatan.com/nine-satanic-statements/ . Also compare Donald J. Trump Twitter @realDonaldTrump
When someone attacks me, I always attack back…except 100x more. This has nothing to do with a tirade but rather, a way of life!
7:56 AM · Nov 11, 2012

Hate your enemies with a whole heart, and if a man smite you on one cheek, SMASH him on the other!
—-Book of Satan, III, 7.
5 “The seven deadly sins of the Christian Church are: greed, pride, envy, anger, gluttony, lust, and sloth. Satanism advocates indulging in each of these “sins” as they all lead to physical, mental, or emotional gratification.” – Anton LaVey, The Satanic Bible

Thoughts on September 11, 2020

September 12, 2020

September 11, 2020

 

 

I’ve tried to comment or reflect on the state of the world every year at this time as my personal 9/11 remembrance. This year I’ve been struck by a campaign ad Sen. Mitch McConnell is running against his challenger, Amy McGrath. The ad begins with an audio recording of her comparing the feeling she had when Trump was declared the winner of the 2016 election with the feeling she had after the 9/11/2001 terror attacks. The ad goes on to mock and attack her for this feeling, saying it shows she’s “wrong for Kentucky.”

As I wrote to Mr. McConnell, I agree the statements by McGrath are unfair. It really is unfair to compare Osama bin Laden to Donald Trump. Bin Laden killed around 3,000 Americans through his terror attacks and triggered an economic downturn. Donald Trump lied repeatedly, and continues to lie to the American people about the COVID-19 pandemic, because he has money in the stock market and doesn’t want to say or do anything that might cause stock prices to decline. Through his active sabotage of our nation’s efforts to defend itself against the threat of the coronavirus, he has killed more Americans than Osama even dreamt of. People who know about infectious diseases say that if we had responded reasonably, such as following the playbook President Obama left for a national pandemic response, we could have avoided up to 80% of the deaths we have suffered.[1] Even taking the more conservative 70% other models have suggested, that means roughly 135,000 American dead due to Donald Trump and his Republican party’s choice to hide the truth from the American people, to encourage suicidal behavior and to rely on fantasies and wishes rather than science, and to call on the moral, spiritual and intellectual dregs of “Christian leaders” to wrap this self-serving sacrifice of the lives of Americans and welfare of the nation in the swaddling cloths of Prosperity Gospel and Christian White Nationalism, and lay it in the manger as the new savior. If “Saul has slain his thousands, and David his tens of thousands,” then it is also true to say, “Osama has slain his thousands, and Donald his hundreds of thousands.” And of course, it isn’t even Autumn yet; wait until we really get into the holiday travel-and-party season with millions of Americans still firmly convinced that COVID-19 is just a Democratic hoax.

Osama also never undermined Americans’ trust in their electoral system. He didn’t tear the states apart, as he wished; in fact, he brought them together and forged the strongest sense of national unity we’d seen in a generation or two. Donald, on the other hand, invites foreigners to hack our elections, attacks the legitimacy of the election without evidence before it has even taken place, deliberately pitted states against each other to compete for medical supplies to fight COVID-19, encourages armed terrorists to murder Americans in the name of white supremacy, defends Confederate rebels and promotes conservative pundits who call for a “second Civil War,” calls peaceful protesters who take a knee at a sporting event sons-of-bitches and traitors, and promotes literally insane conspiracy theories about a worldwide conspiracy of Satanic-cannibal-pedophiles with (according to some) colonies in space. Osama would have been overjoyed if he had caused even half as much chaos and strife as Donald has.

McGrath is also unfair to compare Osama to Donald because Osama never faked bone spurs.

Osama also hoped to bankrupt the United States. This is something he could never accomplish on his own; he needed the incompetent acquiescence or the connivance of American politicians. He found both in the Republican party. First, GW Bush took over a country with a balanced budget on its way to paying off its national debt, and immediately threw it into deficit spending that didn’t stimulate the economy or improve national infrastructure but did help billionaires get richer. By the time he left office, his reckless deregulation of the financial institutions and feckless management of the economy had led us to the Great Recession. After eight years, President Obama had, despite Republican efforts to sabotage the national recovery, managed to put the country back on the path to fiscal solvency. Trump and the GOP wrecked that in one year, running up the greatest deficits the nation had ever seen with no other purpose than to enrich the rich while depleting Social Security, Medicare and other programs the poor and the middle class rely on. Now we are in an economic mess that makes the Great Recession look pleasant by comparison, because Donald refuses to protect the health of the people, the health of the nation’s infrastructure, or any other element of a sound economy. He does a passable job with the Stock Market where he and his golfing buddies like to make money, but that’s the full extent of his economic attention. Again, while Osama only promised, Donald delivered.

Those who were filled with dread in November 2016 have seen their worst nightmares come true—-or to be fair, maybe their second-worst nightmares, since (so far) Dolt45 hasn’t gotten us into a nuclear war so only the West Coast is burning and not every American city. And Mitch McConnell says I should vote for him because he stopped the impeachment, which would have removed an incompetent, treasonous and mentally unstable president* and replaced him with his hand-picked successor, Vice President Pence, who at least has experience botching an epidemic and thus might have had a clue what not to do. Somehow, if this election is to be decided over whether McGrath overreacted to Trump’s election or McConnell failed to react to Trump’s actions once elected, I don’t see how any reasonable person could hesitate to vote straight Democrat in every election from President to County Clerk, until the current Republican Party is disbanded and replaced by a competent center-right party.[2]

Mitch McConnell made sure that when a major crisis hit this nation, we would be led by the most incompetent, stupid, short-sighted and selfish person imaginable. The only response this blithering idiot has to the pandemic is to try to distract us by fanning the flames of race hatred and oppression, because he’s not only stupid and neurotic, he’s also racist. McGrath apparently had the foresight to realize in 2016 that putting a self-absorbed racist idiot at the helm of the ship of state would inevitably lead to us finding an iceberg to hit. Clearly, she is the wiser of the two candidates. Thank you, Mr. McConnell, for running a campaign ad that so clearly lays out the choice in this election, and why you are so terribly unfit for office.

[1] Isaac Sebenius and James K. Sebenius, “How Many Needless COVID-19 Deaths were Caused by Delays in Responding? Most of Them;” STAT June 19, 2020 (https://www.statnews.com/2020/06/19/faster-response-prevented-most-us-covid-19-deaths/)

[2] Jonathan Rauch and Benjamin Wittes, “Boycott the Republican Party;” The Atlantic March 2018 (https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2018/03/boycott-the-gop/550907/)

A Response to Bergson’s “Laughter” (pt. 3)

August 19, 2020

III. Conclusions

 

The derivative nature of aggressive humor: Bergson’s theory is that laughter is intended as a social sanction. We mock the person who has fallen into habit and “mechanical” behavior, particularly when that has reached the point of impairing the person’s functioning as a living and social being. Self-deprecating humor is derivative of this; for example, I might tell a joke about my absentmindedness as a way of chiding absentmindedness itself, and thus all others who fall into my habitual failing.

Toddlers show us humor that is neither self-deprecating nor aggressive; it is simply without a strong sense of self-consciousness at all. There seems to be an innate desire to provoke laughter in others, and the young child will do whatever gets a laugh. It is only later, when we develop a sense of shame and thus an immediate tendency to try to hide our flaws, that we can consciously choose to violate normal standards by intentionally calling attention to our faults in deliberately “self”-deprecating humor. Humor is one of the ways we bond with one another. We share a laugh the same way we share a hug, or a compliment, or a snack, or our ancestors shared a session of grooming: social actions giving pleasure to another and thus strengthening social bonds. Aggressive humor, using humor not just to strengthen some bonds but to break others and to exclude some person from our fun, is what is derivative.

Because of course, as Bergson shows, some humor does chide or punish the socially deviant or harmful person, either to pressure that one back into society or to utterly exile. But the fact that something can be used aggressively does not mean that is its primary use, or even a worthy use. Children laugh together, but at some point they learn to laugh at another, most usually without regard to whether that causes pain. And as we mature and begin struggling for dominance among ourselves, humor becomes another weapon, first to tease and bully an individual and then to bully a group, or even a race. The ability to communicate gives us the ability to lie; likewise the ability to laugh gives us the ability to mock.

Sex, Death and More: “Oh Death, where is thy sting?” asks the prophet and the apostle; and while it may be faith that promises full victory, it is laughter that provides the first defense for many.[1] We often laugh at things that are the most important to us, because they are so frightening and/or tempting. The internet search to find the funniest joke in the world found a death joke; and here it is:

 

Two hunters are out in the woods when one of them collapses. He doesn’t seem to be breathing and his eyes are glazed. The other guy whips out his phone and calls the emergency services. He gasps, “My friend is dead! What can I do?”. The operator says “Calm down. I can help. First, let’s make sure he’s dead.” There is a silence, then a shot is heard. Back on the phone, the guys says “OK, now what?”[2]

 

One of the oldest jokes I know, from the Vikings, is also a death joke, or more accurately a joke told at a death. Several men planned to kill a famous warrior and sent one of their group to scout ahead and see if their quarry was home. When the scout came back they asked, “Well, is Bjorn home?” He replied, “I don’t know if Bjorn is home, but his ax certainly is,” and fell over dead. I’ve read that a lot of Viking humor was like that: dark and violent. Death was a constant threat, and they dealt with it not only with the promise of Valhalla but also by making light of it. If you can laugh, it isn’t as terrifying.

Maybe that’s why there are so many jokes about sex. Sex is a prime motivator for much human activity, to say the least. Our nation spent the last several decades spilling more sweat and treasure to research impotence cures than preparing for the next pandemic. The TV show “Ally McBeal” used to refer to the penis as “the dumbstick.” This reflects several things about sex, most obviously that it’s funny. Much of the show’s humor revolved around the ridiculous situations characters got into because of sex, or the ridiculous sex they got into because they were such characters. Second, men and women seem to both agree that men are particularly controlled by the dumbstick. And for men, this seems to be psychologically problematic; they want sex and they are fascinated by it, but also somewhat afraid of the lengths they will go to and the risks they will take for it and in particular afraid that they are being manipulated by the women around them. The sex drive is powerful, and that power makes it frightening. Sex itself is also powerful. If God is that which creates ex nihilo, then sex is the closest thing we humans have to divine power: the ability to literally create life, so that two become three or more. The genders generally find each other mysterious and at times bizarre, but also indispensable and attractive; and this in itself generates tension. And often we relieve this tension with humor, sometimes good-natured and sometimes seemingly barbed.

There are also a lot of jokes about poop, something that is quite the opposite: repulsive rather than attractive, something we seek to be rid of rather than pursue, and which is the very opposite of creation, the waste products of life. It is not “important” in the way either sex or death is, but no one who has seen the beans scene in “Blazing Saddles” can be ignorant of the comic potential there. I’m not a big fan of scatological humor myself but I find it fascinating that it even exists.

All three of these are generally somewhat “taboo” in adult “polite” conversation. In different ways, all are psychologically powerful. And often, when something is “unmentionable” but also unavoidable, we use humor to discuss it more obliquely, taking the sting out. Bergson might say that each of these brings something “mechanical” to a human life, something controlling rather than controllable by the individual, and it is that tension between the lively expression of the individual and the universalizing and irrational aspects of life that provokes laughter. My hypothesis is again to look at the child. We learn to speak before we learn what things are supposed to be unspeakable. Children blurt out whatever strikes them in the moment, often in ways that would be judged wildly inappropriate for an adult. Sometimes this is because of the child’s ignorance. One story goes like this: Sally wouldn’t stop eating acorns, so her parents told her that if she didn’t stop she’d become very fat. One day in the park Sally saw a pregnant woman and said, “I know what you’ve been doing!” The humor relies on the fact that the child does not know; what would be merely gross if spoken by an adult is funny when said by a child who does not understand. My grandson finds farts hilarious, particularly if they come from an adult. When he loudly said “Uh oh!” when someone broke wind, it was funny because he understood what had happened but not that we don’t usually talk about it; “polite” conversation just tries to ignore it. At some point, a child is going to unconsciously voice some double-entendre, or announce some fact with a directness unforgivable for a serious adult, and the adults around will laugh. The child may have no idea what is funny but will still want to be part of the fun, and will want to repeat it. We thus learn what topics those around us regard as funny, and also (a little or a lot later) learn which topics we are not generally supposed to just discuss directly when making “small talk” or “polite conversation.” Some of us learn to discuss this topics more indirectly with humor, simultaneously raising the tension by presenting these taboo topics and releasing it through laughter. Others may memorize jokes to share about these topics, so as to be able to share laughter with each other even if one lacks the creative wit to create humor oneself.

I suspect (though I know no way to test this) that comedians are allowed more leeway in society precisely because there is something childish in humor. Whether a professional comedian or “the life of the party,” some people are particularly good at raising serious or even taboo topics in a way that evokes laughter, and we react in a way analogous to the way we react to a child saying something otherwise inappropriate: “Well, the tyke didn’t really mean it, so it’s okay.” The child can’t really mean it, since the child lacks the discernment; the comedian likewise doesn’t mean it, because he or she is only a comedian and therefore not “serious.” But sometimes the comedian “crosses the line” and says something the audience finds so repulsive that no humor can excuse it.[3] Gilbert Gottfried notoriously derailed his career with a tweet comparing the Fukashima nuclear disaster to a Godzilla attack. At that point it didn’t really even matter if the joke was funny; it was “too soon,” too painful, and no amount of humor was able to deflect attention from the human suffering. But generally Gottfried is able to say what would otherwise be terrible things in a way that provokes laughter rather than outrage. The successful comedian may say something that is taboo, or insulting, or otherwise generally not what we’re supposed to say, but does it in a way that evokes laughter; and that laughter seems to cause us to take it as “only a joke” even if we simultaneously see real truth in what is said. It is similar to the way we can “laugh it off” if a child says something true but also unmentionable; we sort of treat the comedian as not really “serious” even when we say, “Still, you know, she’s got a point.”

Maybe we allow comic discussion of topics that we avoid seriously discussing because in some way we take the adult comedian as in some sense a child, and give the comedian a similar leeway to speak the unspeakable—so long as it is accompanied by laughter. Without laughter, we remember that we are listening to an adult and judge by adult standards.

Humor and humility: Bergson claims that art aims to capture the individual reality or liveliness of its object. Too often our “utilitarian” concerns cause us to see everything as a tool, raw material, or obstacle to fulfilling our own desires, instead of seeing things and people as realities independent of ourselves. Art aims to break the dominance of utilitarian thinking by presenting its object apart from all functionality. The goal of a still life is not to sell apples or to stimulate the appetite; it is simply to present the viewer with the beauty to be found in a simple bowl of apples, existing for its own sake. Bergson says that comedy, by contrast, does not depict individual unique realities but instead depicts stereotypes and generalities. A good drama can be named after a particular person, such as Othello or Hamlet, and the drama’s quality will largely depend on how well the playwright presents the particulars of the protagonist’s personality. We want the dramatic protagonist to be “believable,” to seem like a real person. A comedy by contrast can be named for a type or generality: “The Jealous One” in Bergson’s example, or perhaps “The Jerk” to cite a more recent example. The comedic protagonist does not have to be “realistic;” in fact, that can get in the way of the comedy, particularly if it leads us to have too much sympathy for the character. It is more than enough if the comedic character is sketched in broad strokes, so we can recognize the type and the “mechanism” that is being lampooned.

But this claim that comedy is rooted in social structures depends on Bergson’s prior claim that humans are the only animal that laughs, or is laughed at; and scientific evidence indicates that this claim is wrong. Other animals have humor, small children have humor, and the essence of humor is much more basic and fuzzy than Bergson suggests. Laughter is a reaction to something that gives joy, and often what gives joy by virtue of being funny. We say “it’s funny because it’s true,” meaning that something seems funny because it expresses or reveals a truth in a surprising and generally oblique way. No one laughs if you simply state that men and women often do things differently; but entire comic careers have been based on comically stating specific different reactions of men and women, or the comedian and his or her spouse. But we philosophers don’t need to visit the comedy clubs to see this saying illustrated; we have our great hero, Socrates, the world’s first stand-up philosopher, who went down in history for his use of irony to reveal the absurdities of the social assumptions of his day and the presumptions of its leaders. Chuang Tzu also used humor to raise epistemological or metaphysical points.

Just as humor can be self-deprecating or self-aggrandizing, friendly or aggressive, so too it can be revelatory, falsifying or neither. Racist humor is aggressive and relies on false stereotypes, intending to dehumanize its target. Python’s “Banker Sketch” is closer to Bergson’s ideal; it relies on stereotypes not merely to dehumanize the target but also to rehumanize. One can see that sketch and laugh at those rich snobs, or see oneself in the Banker and resolve not to be like that. The joke that makes us laugh at ourselves, or at one of our idols, can be supremely revelatory. If art is supposed to reveal truth by presenting its object outside our usual framework of desires and tools, then humor can do so by presenting to us ourselves. We immediately perceive the world in orbit around ourselves, with everything either a tool or an obstacle. We can step away from that solipsistic perspective when we are caught up in our appreciation of beauty or harmony, in art or music; but we can also do so through learning to laugh at ourselves, and thus learning humility.

Why do authoritarians hate humor? As The Doctor said, “the very powerful and the very stupid have one thing in common: they don’t change their beliefs to fit the facts, they change the facts to fit their beliefs.”[4] Authoritarians want authority over everything, including—-especially—-true and false. They want to be able to control others, by forcing them to accept the despot’s version of reality or, failing that, to at least force them to act as if they do. And they don’t want to be challenged, and any independent truth-claim represents a challenge to their power.

Despots can use humor to reinforce falsehoods or to undermine truth, and often do. They use racist and ethnic humor to dehumanize The Other and give their followers an inflated sense of self-worth which derives entirely from being on the good side of the despot. This is not essentially different than the actions of the schoolyard bully who humiliates one kid to put fear into the others that if they don’t laugh at the victim, they could be next. It is more dangerous, and more wicked since an adult should have a moral sense, but the social mechanics are identical. But humor can turn against the despot too. Humor exposes our pretensions.   As Bergson points out, the gap between empty ceremony and human life is particularly funny. President Ford fell down once due to a knee he injured playing football, and Chevy Chase made an industry out of his “Gerald Ford impression” pratfalls. The physical humor itself was funny because Chase could do the seemingly unnatural without injury and then shout, “Live from New York, it’s Saturday Night!” but the idea that the President of the United States is a mere human being subject to gravity and fleshly weakness like the rest of us added another layer of comedy. That was part of the social function of the White House Correspondents’ Dinner Roasts, which used be a major yearly event. The President of the United States, and other powerful leaders, would allow himself to be laughed at, and would even join in the laughter. The President would respond with humor at the end, but only when he had shown he could take a joke and make a joke at his own expense could he make one at another’s. An authoritarian cannot stand to be laughed at, because an authoritarian does not want to be merely human; he or she must seem like a mortal god. Someone made a comment about President Xi being round and chubby like Pooh Bear, and now pictures of Winnie the Pooh are illegal in China. The authoritarian doesn’t mind being hated, but cannot stand to be laughed at, because when we laugh at anything we cease to fear it,—at least for a moment,

Humor also, as we saw, is a mechanism for social bonding. Authoritarians want to be the only center of social groups. Just as romantic love becomes a rebellion unless it is yoked to the authoritarian in a State-sanctioned marriage, so too when a group begins to laugh together they become a potential center of power. There is nothing so infuriating to an oppressor as the sound of the oppressed laughing among themselves; it means they’ve found joy that the oppressor did not control. If they can feed their own spirits and find joy in life without the permission of the authoritarian, what other rebellion might they find possible? Authoritarians always attempt to control anything that feeds the spirit, that brings joy to the lives of the people, whether it be art, or religion, or knowledge, or sex, or humor.

Epilogue

There is no virtue more beneficial than a sense of humor, and no divine gift more blessed than laughter. When we are overtaken by the goodness of life, and our whole being overflows with joy, we laugh. When the terrors and griefs of life threaten to overwhelm us, we laugh at our fears and cut them down to size. When our own egos threaten to outrun our capacities, we laugh at ourselves and again learn humility. When self-important leaders seek to humiliate and subdue us, we laugh at them and remember that they are mortal, the same as us. Gratitude and contentment, courage and endurance, humility and confidence, are all boosted by a proper sense of humor. And, it makes you laugh! What other virtue can say all that?

[1] Hosea 13:14; 1 Corinthians 15:55

[2] Alva Noë, “What is the Funniest Joke in the World?” NPR March 7, 2014 (https://www.npr.org/sections/13.7/2014/03/07/287250640/what-is-the-funniest-joke-in-the-world)

[3] Sometimes the joke simply falls flat and the audience doesn’t think the comedian is funny or even trying to be. One notorious example of this comes from the 2016 presidential campaign, during the Alfred E. Smith Memorial Foundation dinner .[3] Traditionally part of the event has long been a roast, presenting opposing candidates the chance to trade some good-natured barbs with one another. It is not surprising that sometimes this gets a little close to the bone, but Trump took his routine to such an extreme of negative directness that the audience of polite Manhattan society began to boo and even heckle him. He didn’t so much make a joke that Hillary was corrupt as simply say, “She’s so corrupt you should vote for me; and she hates Catholics too.” At one point Trump said to Clinton, “I don’t know if they’re booing you or me,” and someone in the audience shouted back, “You!” Years later commentators pointed to this as one example of Trump’s lack of a sense of humor. He may say things that some find funny, but he is said to fundamentally lack two elements of genuine comedy: the ability to take a joke about himself, and the ability to tell a joke about another in a way that even the target has to admit is funny.

[4] “The Face of Evil,” Doctor Who